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Identifying Mislabeled Data using the Area Under the Margin Ranking

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Not all data in a typical training set help with generalization; some samples can be overly ambiguous or outrightly mislabeled. This paper introduces a new method to identify such samples and mitigate their impact when training neural networks. At the heart of our algorithm is the Area Under the Margin (AUM) statistic, which exploits differences in the training dynamics of clean and mislabeled samples. A simple procedure - adding an extra class populated with purposefully mislabeled indicator samples - learns a threshold that isolates mislabeled data based on this metric. This approach consistently improves upon prior work on synthetic and real-world datasets. On the WebVision50 classification task our method removes 17% of training data, yielding a 2.6% (absolute) improvement in test error. On CIFAR100 removing 13% of the data leads to a 1.2% drop in error.


Learning from Noisy Labels with Deep Neural Networks: A Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep learning has achieved remarkable success in numerous domains with help from large amounts of big data. However, the quality of data labels is a concern because of the lack of high-quality labels in many real-world scenarios. As noisy labels severely degrade the generalization performance of deep neural networks, learning from noisy labels (robust training) is becoming an important task in modern deep learning applications. In this survey, we first describe the problem of learning with label noise from a supervised learning perspective. Next, we provide a comprehensive review of 46 state-of-the-art robust training methods, all of which are categorized into seven groups according to their methodological difference, followed by a systematic comparison of six properties used to evaluate their superiority. Subsequently, we summarize the typically used evaluation methodology, including public noisy datasets and evaluation metrics. Finally, we present several promising research directions that can serve as a guideline for future studies.


Which Strategies Matter for Noisy Label Classification? Insight into Loss and Uncertainty

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Label noise is a critical factor that degrades the generalization performance of deep neural networks, thus leading to severe issues in real-world problems. Existing studies have employed strategies based on either loss or uncertainty to address noisy labels, and ironically some strategies contradict each other: emphasizing or discarding uncertain samples or concentrating on high or low loss samples. To elucidate how opposing strategies can enhance model performance and offer insights into training with noisy labels, we present analytical results on how loss and uncertainty values of samples change throughout the training process. From the in-depth analysis, we design a new robust training method that emphasizes clean and informative samples, while minimizing the influence of noise using both loss and uncertainty. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with extensive experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets for various deep learning models. The results show that our method significantly outperforms other state-of-the-art methods and can be used generally regardless of neural network architectures.


A Simple yet Effective Baseline for Robust Deep Learning with Noisy Labels

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recently deep neural networks have shown their capacity to memorize training data, even with noisy labels, which hurts generalization performance. To mitigate this issue, we propose a simple but effective baseline that is robust to noisy labels, even with severe noise. Our objective involves a variance regularization term that implicitly penalizes the Jacobian norm of the neural network on the whole training set (including the noisy-labeled data), which encourages generalization and prevents overfitting to the corrupted labels. Experiments on both synthetically generated incorrect labels and realistic large-scale noisy datasets demonstrate that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance with a high tolerance to severe noise.


Deep Learning is Robust to Massive Label Noise

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep neural networks trained on large supervised datasets have led to impressive results in image classification and other tasks. However, well-annotated datasets can be time-consuming and expensive to collect, lending increased interest to larger but noisy datasets that are more easily obtained. In this paper, we show that deep neural networks are capable of generalizing from training data for which true labels are massively outnumbered by incorrect labels. We demonstrate remarkably high test performance after training on corrupted data from MNIST, CIFAR, and ImageNet. For example, on MNIST we obtain test accuracy above 90 percent even after each clean training example has been diluted with 100 randomly-labeled examples. Such behavior holds across multiple patterns of label noise, even when erroneous labels are biased towards confusing classes. We show that training in this regime requires a significant but manageable increase in dataset size that is related to the factor by which correct labels have been diluted. Finally, we provide an analysis of our results that shows how increasing noise decreases the effective batch size.