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Randomization as Regularization: A Degrees of Freedom Explanation for Random Forest Success

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Random forests remain among the most popular off-the-shelf supervised machine learning tools with a well-established track record of predictive accuracy in both regression and classification settings. Despite their empirical success as well as a bevy of recent work investigating their statistical properties, a full and satisfying explanation for their success has yet to be put forth. Here we aim to take a step forward in this direction by demonstrating that the additional randomness injected into individual trees serves as a form of implicit regularization, making random forests an ideal model in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) settings. Specifically, from a model-complexity perspective, we show that the mtry parameter in random forests serves much the same purpose as the shrinkage penalty in explicitly regularized regression procedures like lasso and ridge regression. To highlight this point, we design a randomized linear-model-based forward selection procedure intended as an analogue to tree-based random forests and demonstrate its surprisingly strong empirical performance. Numerous demonstrations on both real and synthetic data are provided.


Forest Garrote

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Variable selection for high-dimensional linear models has received a lot of attention lately, mostly in the context of l1-regularization. Part of the attraction is the variable selection effect: parsimonious models are obtained, which are very suitable for interpretation. In terms of predictive power, however, these regularized linear models are often slightly inferior to machine learning procedures like tree ensembles. Tree ensembles, on the other hand, lack usually a formal way of variable selection and are difficult to visualize. A Garrote-style convex penalty for trees ensembles, in particular Random Forests, is proposed. The penalty selects functional groups of nodes in the trees. These could be as simple as monotone functions of individual predictor variables. This yields a parsimonious function fit, which lends itself easily to visualization and interpretation. The predictive power is maintained at least at the same level as the original tree ensemble. A key feature of the method is that, once a tree ensemble is fitted, no further tuning parameter needs to be selected. The empirical performance is demonstrated on a wide array of datasets.


Large-scale benchmark study of survival prediction methods using multi-omics data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Multi-omics data, that is, datasets containing different types of high-dimensional molecular variables (often in addition to classical clinical variables), are increasingly generated for the investigation of various diseases. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding the usefulness of multi-omics data for the prediction of disease outcomes such as survival time. It is also unclear which methods are most appropriate to derive such prediction models. We aim to give some answers to these questions by means of a large-scale benchmark study using real data. Different prediction methods from machine learning and statistics were applied on 18 multi-omics cancer datasets from the database "The Cancer Genome Atlas", containing from 35 to 1,000 observations and from 60,000 to 100,000 variables. The considered outcome was the (censored) survival time. Twelve methods based on boosting, penalized regression and random forest were compared, comprising both methods that do and that do not take the group structure of the omics variables into account. The Kaplan-Meier estimate and a Cox model using only clinical variables were used as reference methods. The methods were compared using several repetitions of 5-fold cross-validation. Uno's C-index and the integrated Brier-score served as performance metrics. The results show that, although multi-omics data can improve the prediction performance, this is not generally the case. Only the method block forest slightly outperformed the Cox model on average over all datasets. Taking into account the multi-omics structure improves the predictive performance and protects variables in low-dimensional groups - especially clinical variables - from not being included in the model. All analyses are reproducible using freely available R code.


Machine Learning Methods Economists Should Know About

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We discuss the relevance of the recent Machine Learning (ML) literature for economics and econometrics. First we discuss the differences in goals, methods and settings between the ML literature and the traditional econometrics and statistics literatures. Then we discuss some specific methods from the machine learning literature that we view as important for empirical researchers in economics. These include supervised learning methods for regression and classification, unsupervised learning methods, as well as matrix completion methods. Finally, we highlight newly developed methods at the intersection of ML and econometrics, methods that typically perform better than either off-the-shelf ML or more traditional econometric methods when applied to particular classes of problems, problems that include causal inference for average treatment effects, optimal policy estimation, and estimation of the counterfactual effect of price changes in consumer choice models.


Local Linear Forests

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Random forests are a powerful method for non-parametric regression, but are limited in their ability to fit smooth signals, and can show poor predictive performance in the presence of strong, smooth effects. Taking the perspective of random forests as an adaptive kernel method, we pair the forest kernel with a local linear regression adjustment to better capture smoothness. The resulting procedure, local linear forests, enables us to improve on asymptotic rates of convergence for random forests with smooth signals, and provides substantial gains in accuracy on both real and simulated data.