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Real-Time Nonparametric Anomaly Detection in High-Dimensional Settings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Timely and reliable detection of abrupt anomalies, e.g., faults, intrusions/attacks, is crucial for real-time monitoring and security of many modern systems such as the smart grid and the Internet of Things (IoT) networks that produce high-dimensional data. With this goal, we propose effective and scalable algorithms for real-time anomaly detection in high-dimensional settings. Our proposed algorithms are nonparametric (model-free) as both the nominal and anomalous multivariate data distributions are assumed to be unknown. We extract useful univariate summary statistics and perform the anomaly detection task in a single-dimensional space. We model anomalies as persistent outliers and propose to detect them via a cumulative sum (CUSUM)-like algorithm. In case the observed data stream has a low intrinsic dimensionality, we find a low-dimensional submanifold in which the nominal data are embedded and then evaluate whether the sequentially acquired data persistently deviate from the nominal submanifold. Further, in the general case, we determine an acceptance region for nominal data via the Geometric Entropy Minimization (GEM) method and then evaluate whether the sequentially observed data persistently fall outside the acceptance region. We provide an asymptotic lower bound on the average false alarm period of the proposed CUSUM-like algorithm. Moreover, we provide a sufficient condition to asymptotically guarantee that the decision statistic of the proposed algorithm does not diverge in the absence of anomalies. Numerical studies illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes in quick and accurate detection of changes/anomalies in a variety of high-dimensional settings.


Timely Detection and Mitigation of Stealthy DDoS Attacks via IoT Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Internet of Things (IoT) networks consist of sensors, actuators, mobile and wearable devices that can connect to the Internet. With billions of such devices already in the market which have significant vulnerabilities, there is a dangerous threat to the Internet services and also some cyber-physical systems that are also connected to the Internet. Specifically, due to their existing vulnerabilities IoT devices are susceptible to being compromised and being part of a new type of stealthy Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, called Mongolian DDoS, which is characterized by its widely distributed nature and small attack size from each source. This study proposes a novel anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System (IDS) that is capable of timely detecting and mitigating this emerging type of DDoS attacks. The proposed IDS's capability of detecting and mitigating stealthy DDoS attacks with even very low attack size per source is demonstrated through numerical and testbed experiments.


Online Anomaly Detection in Surveillance Videos with Asymptotic Bounds on False Alarm Rate

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Anomaly detection in surveillance videos is attracting an increasing amount of attention. Despite the competitive performance of recent methods, they lack theoretical performance analysis, particularly due to the complex deep neural network architectures used in decision making. Additionally, online decision making is an important but mostly neglected factor in this domain. Much of the existing methods that claim to be online, depend on batch or offline processing in practice. Motivated by these research gaps, we propose an online anomaly detection method in surveillance videos with asymptotic bounds on the false alarm rate, which in turn provides a clear procedure for selecting a proper decision threshold that satisfies the desired false alarm rate. Our proposed algorithm consists of a multi-objective deep learning module along with a statistical anomaly detection module, and its effectiveness is demonstrated on several publicly available data sets where we outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms. All codes are available at https://github.com/kevaldoshi17/Prediction-based-Video-Anomaly-Detection-.


Should I Raise The Red Flag? A comprehensive survey of anomaly scoring methods toward mitigating false alarms

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A general Intrusion Detection System (IDS) fundamentally acts based on an Anomaly Detection System (ADS) or a combination of anomaly detection and signature-based methods, gathering and analyzing observations and reporting possible suspicious cases to a system administrator or the other users for further investigation. One of the notorious challenges which even the state-of-the-art ADS and IDS have not overcome is the possibility of a very high false alarms rate. Especially in very large and complex system settings, the amount of low-level alarms easily overwhelms administrators and increases their tendency to ignore alerts. We can group the existing false alarm mitigation strategies into two main families: The first group covers the methods directly customized and applied toward higher quality anomaly scoring in ADS. The second group includes approaches utilized in the related contexts as a filtering method toward decreasing the possibility of false alarm rates. Given the lack of a comprehensive study regarding possible ways to mitigate the false alarm rates, in this paper, we review the existing techniques for false alarm mitigation in ADS and present the pros and cons of each technique. We also study a few promising techniques applied in the signature-based IDS and other related contexts like commercial Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) tools, which are applicable and promising in the ADS context. Finally, we conclude with some directions for future research.


An Efficient Approach for Anomaly Detection in Traffic Videos

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Due to its relevance in intelligent transportation systems, anomaly detection in traffic videos has recently received much interest. It remains a difficult problem due to a variety of factors influencing the video quality of a real-time traffic feed, such as temperature, perspective, lighting conditions, and so on. Even though state-of-the-art methods perform well on the available benchmark datasets, they need a large amount of external training data as well as substantial computational resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach for a video anomaly detection system which is capable of running at the edge devices, e.g., on a roadside camera. The proposed approach comprises a pre-processing module that detects changes in the scene and removes the corrupted frames, a two-stage background modelling module and a two-stage object detector. Finally, a backtracking anomaly detection algorithm computes a similarity statistic and decides on the onset time of the anomaly. We also propose a sequential change detection algorithm that can quickly adapt to a new scene and detect changes in the similarity statistic. Experimental results on the Track 4 test set of the 2021 AI City Challenge show the efficacy of the proposed framework as we achieve an F1-score of 0.9157 along with 8.4027 root mean square error (RMSE) and are ranked fourth in the competition.