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Deep Transfer Learning with Joint Adaptation Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep networks have been successfully applied to learn transferable features for adapting models from a source domain to a different target domain. In this paper, we present joint adaptation networks (JAN), which learn a transfer network by aligning the joint distributions of multiple domain-specific layers across domains based on a joint maximum mean discrepancy (JMMD) criterion. Adversarial training strategy is adopted to maximize JMMD such that the distributions of the source and target domains are made more distinguishable. Learning can be performed by stochastic gradient descent with the gradients computed by back-propagation in linear-time. Experiments testify that our model yields state of the art results on standard datasets.


Stochastic Gradient Methods with Block Diagonal Matrix Adaptation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Adaptive gradient approaches that automatically adjust the learning rate on a per-feature basis have been very popular for training deep networks. This rich class of algorithms includes Adagrad, RMSprop, Adam, and recent extensions. All these algorithms have adopted diagonal matrix adaptation, due to the prohibitive computational burden of manipulating full matrices in high-dimensions. In this paper, we show that block-diagonal matrix adaptation can be a practical and powerful solution that can effectively utilize structural characteristics of deep learning architectures, and significantly improve convergence and out-of-sample generalization. We present a general framework with block-diagonal matrix updates via coordinate grouping, which includes counterparts of the aforementioned algorithms, prove their convergence in non-convex optimization, highlighting benefits compared to diagonal versions. In addition, we propose an efficient spectrum-clipping scheme that benefits from superior generalization performance of Sgd. Extensive experiments reveal that block-diagonal approaches achieve state-of-the-art results on several deep learning tasks, and can outperform adaptive diagonal methods, vanilla Sgd, as well as a modified version of full-matrix adaptation proposed very recently.


Joint Information Preservation for Heterogeneous Domain Adaptation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Domain adaptation aims to assist the modeling tasks of the target domain with knowledge of the source domain. The two domains often lie in different feature spaces due to diverse data collection methods, which leads to the more challenging task of heterogeneous domain adaptation (HDA). A core issue of HDA is how to preserve the information of the original data during adaptation. In this paper, we propose a joint information preservation method to deal with the problem. The method preserves the information of the original data from two aspects. On the one hand, although paired samples often exist between the two domains of the HDA, current algorithms do not utilize such information sufficiently. The proposed method preserves the paired information by maximizing the correlation of the paired samples in the shared subspace. On the other hand, the proposed method improves the strategy of preserving the structural information of the original data, where the local and global structural information are preserved simultaneously. Finally, the joint information preservation is integrated by distribution matching. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art HDA algorithms.


Synthesized Policies for Transfer and Adaptation across Tasks and Environments

Neural Information Processing Systems

The ability to transfer in reinforcement learning is key towards building an agent of general artificial intelligence. In this paper, we consider the problem of learning to simultaneously transfer across both environments and tasks, probably more importantly, by learning from only sparse (environment, task) pairs out of all the possible combinations. We propose a novel compositional neural network architecture which depicts a meta rule for composing policies from environment and task embeddings. Notably, one of the main challenges is to learn the embeddings jointly with the meta rule. We further propose new training methods to disentangle the embeddings, making them both distinctive signatures of the environments and tasks and effective building blocks for composing the policies.


A Deep Recurrent Q Network towards Self-adapting Distributed Microservices architecture

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

One desired aspect of microservices architecture is the ability to self-adapt its own architecture and behaviour in response to changes in the operational environment. To achieve the desired high levels of self-adaptability, this research implements the distributed microservices architectures model, as informed by the MAPE-K model. The proposed architecture employs a multi adaptation agents supported by a centralised controller, that can observe the environment and execute a suitable adaptation action. The adaptation planning is managed by a deep recurrent Q-network (DRQN). It is argued that such integration between DRQN and MDP agents in a MAPE-K model offers distributed microservice architecture with self-adaptability and high levels of availability and scalability. Integrating DRQN into the adaptation process improves the effectiveness of the adaptation and reduces any adaptation risks, including resources over-provisioning and thrashing. The performance of DRQN is evaluated against deep Q-learning and policy gradient algorithms including: i) deep q-network (DQN), ii) dulling deep Q-network (DDQN), iii) a policy gradient neural network (PGNN), and iv) deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG). The DRQN implementation in this paper manages to outperform the above mentioned algorithms in terms of total reward, less adaptation time, lower error rates, plus faster convergence and training times. We strongly believe that DRQN is more suitable for driving the adaptation in distributed services-oriented architecture and offers better performance than other dynamic decision-making algorithms. Index Terms Service oriented architecture, self-adaptive architectures, reinforcement learning, Q-learning algorithms, deep Q-Learning networks, recurrent Q-learning networks, policy approximation, multi agents environment. I. INTRODUCTION Self-adaptability refers to the ability of service oriented architecture (SOA) to modify its own structure and behaviour in response to changes in the operating environment [1]. High levels of self-adaptability present the challenges of self-organising, self-tuning, and self-healing the architecture against an interruption. Moreover, because of the services' pervasiveness, and in order to make any adaptation strategy effective and successful, adaptation actions must be considered in conjunction with So that the performed action meets the adaptation goals, objectives, and the desired architecture quality attributes [2]-[4].