On Rational Entailment for Propositional Typicality Logic

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL) is a recently proposed logic, obtained by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator capturing the most typical (alias normal or conventional) situations in which a given sentence holds. The semantics of PTL is in terms of ranked models as studied in the well-known KLM approach to preferential reasoning and therefore KLM-style rational consequence relations can be embedded in PTL. In spite of the non-monotonic features introduced by the semantics adopted for the typicality operator, the obvious Tarskian definition of entailment for PTL remains monotonic and is therefore not appropriate in many contexts. Our first important result is an impossibility theorem showing that a set of proposed postulates that at first all seem appropriate for a notion of entailment with regard to typicality cannot be satisfied simultaneously. Closer inspection reveals that this result is best interpreted as an argument for advocating the development of more than one type of PTL entailment. In the spirit of this interpretation, we investigate three different (semantic) versions of entailment for PTL, each one based on the definition of rational closure as introduced by Lehmann and Magidor for KLM-style conditionals, and constructed using different notions of minimality.

What Does Entailment for PTL Mean?

AAAI Conferences

We continue recent investigations into the problem of reasoning about typicality. We do so in the framework of Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL), which is obtained by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator and characterized by a preferential semantics à la KLM. In this paper we study different notions of entailment for PTL. We take as a starting point the notion of Rational Closure defined for KLM-style conditionals. We show that the additional expressivity of PTL results in different versions of Rational Closure for PTL — versions that are equivalent with respect to the conditional language originally proposed by KLM.

A Polynomial Time Subsumption Algorithm for Nominal Safe $\mathcal{ELO}_\bot$ under Rational Closure

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Description Logics (DLs) under Rational Closure (RC) is a well-known framework for non-monotonic reasoning in DLs. In this paper, we address the concept subsumption decision problem under RC for nominal safe $\mathcal{ELO}_\bot$, a notable and practically important DL representative of the OWL 2 profile OWL 2 EL. Our contribution here is to define a polynomial time subsumption procedure for nominal safe $\mathcal{ELO}_\bot$ under RC that relies entirely on a series of classical, monotonic $\mathcal{EL}_\bot$ subsumption tests. Therefore, any existing classical monotonic $\mathcal{EL}_\bot$ reasoner can be used as a black box to implement our method. We then also adapt the method to one of the known extensions of RC for DLs, namely Defeasible Inheritance-based DLs without losing the computational tractability.

On Rational Closure in Description Logics of Typicality

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We define the notion of rational closure in the context of Description Logics extended with a tipicality operator. We start from ALC+T, an extension of ALC with a typicality operator T: intuitively allowing to express concepts of the form T(C), meant to select the "most normal" instances of a concept C. The semantics we consider is based on rational model. But we further restrict the semantics to minimal models, that is to say, to models that minimise the rank of domain elements. We show that this semantics captures exactly a notion of rational closure which is a natural extension to Description Logics of Lehmann and Magidor's original one. We also extend the notion of rational closure to the Abox component. We provide an ExpTime algorithm for computing the rational closure of an Abox and we show that it is sound and complete with respect to the minimal model semantics.