Once a rule base has been formulated a fuzzy inference strategy must be applied in order to combine grades of membership. Considerable time and effort is spent trying to determine the number of fuzzy sets for a given system while substantially less time is invested in obtaining the most suitable inference strategy. This paper investigates a number of theoretical proven fuzzy inference strategies in order to assess the impact of these strategies on the performance of a fuzzy rule based classifier system. A fuzzy inference framework is proposed, which allows the investigation of five pure theoretical fuzzy inference operators in two real world applications. An additional two novel fuzzy-neural strategies are proposed and a comparative study is undertaken. The results show that the selection of the most suitable inference strategy for a given domain can lead to a significant improvement in performance.

Aguiar, Charles, Leite, Daniel

Time-varying classifiers, namely, evolving classifiers, play an important role in a scenario in which information is available as a never-ending online data stream. We present a new unsupervised learning method for numerical data called evolving Internal-eXternal Fuzzy clustering method (Fuzzy eIX). We develop the notion of double-boundary fuzzy granules and elaborate on its implications. Type 1 and type 2 fuzzy inference systems can be obtained from the projection of Fuzzy eIX granules. We perform the principle of the balanced information granularity within Fuzzy eIX classifiers to achieve a higher level of model understandability. Internal and external granules are updated from a numerical data stream at the same time that the global granular structure of the classifier is autonomously evolved. A synthetic nonstationary problem called Rotation of Twin Gaussians shows the behavior of the classifier. The Fuzzy eIX classifier could keep up with its accuracy in a scenario in which offline-trained classifiers would clearly have their accuracy drastically dropped.

This study, fundamentals of fuzzy block theory, and its application in assessment of stability in underground openings, has surveyed. Using fuzzy topics and inserting them in to key block theory, in two ways, fundamentals of fuzzy block theory has been presented. In indirect combining, by coupling of adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (NFIS) and classic block theory, we could extract possible damage parts around a tunnel. In direct solution, some principles of block theory, by means of different fuzzy facets theory, were rewritten.

In a recent paper [1] we introduced the Fuzzy Bayesian Learning (FBL) paradigm where expert opinions can be encoded in the form of fuzzy rule bases and the hyper-parameters of the fuzzy sets can be learned from data using a Bayesian approach. The present paper extends this work for selecting the most appropriate rule base among a set of competing alternatives, which best explains the data, by calculating the model evidence or marginal likelihood. We explain why this is an attractive alternative over simply minimizing a mean squared error metric of prediction and show the validity of the proposition using synthetic examples and a real world case study in the financial services sector.

We revisit Zadeh's notion of "evidence of the second kind" and show that it provides the foundation for a general theory of epistemic random fuzzy sets, which generalizes both the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions and Possibility theory. In this perspective, Dempster-Shafer theory deals with belief functions generated by random sets, while Possibility theory deals with belief functions induced by fuzzy sets. The more general theory allows us to represent and combine evidence that is both uncertain and fuzzy. We demonstrate the application of this formalism to statistical inference, and show that it makes it possible to reconcile the possibilistic interpretation of likelihood with Bayesian inference.