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A Critical Examination of RESCAL for Completion of Knowledge Bases with Transitive Relations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Link prediction in large knowledge graphs has received a lot of attention recently because of its importance for inferring missing relations and for completing and improving noisily extracted knowledge graphs. Over the years a number of machine learning researchers have presented various models for predicting the presence of missing relations in a knowledge base. Although all the previous methods are presented with empirical results that show high performance on select datasets, there is almost no previous work on understanding the connection between properties of a knowledge base and the performance of a model. In this paper we analyze the RESCAL method and prove that it can not encode asymmetric transitive relations in knowledge bases.


Knowledge Graph Embeddings and Explainable AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graph embeddings are now a widely adopted approach to knowledge representation in which entities and relationships are embedded in vector spaces. In this chapter, we introduce the reader to the concept of knowledge graph embeddings by explaining what they are, how they can be generated and how they can be evaluated. We summarize the state-of-the-art in this field by describing the approaches that have been introduced to represent knowledge in the vector space. In relation to knowledge representation, we consider the problem of explainability, and discuss models and methods for explaining predictions obtained via knowledge graph embeddings.


Inductive Entity Representations from Text via Link Prediction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a method for learning representations of entities, that uses a Transformer-based architecture as an entity encoder, and link prediction training on a knowledge graph with textual entity descriptions. We demonstrate that our approach can be applied effectively for link prediction in different inductive settings involving entities not seen during training, outperforming related state-of-the-art methods (22% MRR improvement on average). We provide evidence that the learned representations transfer to other tasks that do not require fine-tuning the entity encoder. In an entity classification task we obtain an average improvement of 16% accuracy compared with baselines that also employ pre-trained models. For an information retrieval task, significant improvements of up to 8.8% in NDCG@10 were obtained for natural language queries.


LinkNBed: Multi-Graph Representation Learning with Entity Linkage

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graphs have emerged as an important model for studying complex multi-relational data. This has given rise to the construction of numerous large scale but incomplete knowledge graphs encoding information extracted from various resources. An effective and scalable approach to jointly learn over multiple graphs and eventually construct a unified graph is a crucial next step for the success of knowledge-based inference for many downstream applications. To this end, we propose LinkNBed, a deep relational learning framework that learns entity and relationship representations across multiple graphs. We identify entity linkage across graphs as a vital component to achieve our goal. We design a novel objective that leverage entity linkage and build an efficient multi-task training procedure. Experiments on link prediction and entity linkage demonstrate substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art relational learning approaches.


From Word To Sense Embeddings: A Survey on Vector Representations of Meaning

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Over the past years, distributed semantic representations have proved to be effective and flexible keepers of prior knowledge to be integrated into downstream applications. This survey focuses on the representation of meaning. We start from the theoretical background behind word vector space models and highlight one of their major limitations: the meaning conflation deficiency, which arises from representing a word with all its possible meanings as a single vector. Then, we explain how this deficiency can be addressed through a transition from the word level to the more fine-grained level of word senses (in its broader acceptation) as a method for modelling unambiguous lexical meaning. We present a comprehensive overview of the wide range of techniques in the two main branches of sense representation, i.e., unsupervised and knowledge-based. Finally, this survey covers the main evaluation procedures and applications for this type of representation, and provides an analysis of four of its important aspects: interpretability, sense granularity, adaptability to different domains and compositionality.