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A Survey of Research in Distributed, Continual Planning

AI Magazine

Complex, real-world domains require rethinking traditional approaches to AI planning. Planning and executing the resulting plans in a dynamic environment implies a continual approach in which planning and execution are interleaved, uncertainty in the current and projected world state is recognized and handled appropriately, and replanning can be performed when the situation changes or planned actions fail. Furthermore, complex planning and execution problems may require multiple computational agents and human planners to collaborate on a solution. In this article, we describe a new paradigm for planning in complex, dynamic environments, which we term distributed, continual planning (DCP). We argue that developing DCP systems will be necessary for planning applications to be successful in these environments.


Data Context Adaptation for Accurate Recommendation with Additional Information

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Given a sparse rating matrix and an auxiliary matrix of users or items, how can we accurately predict missing ratings considering different data contexts of entities? Many previous studies proved that utilizing the additional information with rating data is helpful to improve the performance. However, existing methods are limited in that 1) they ignore the fact that data contexts of rating and auxiliary matrices are different, 2) they have restricted capability of expressing independence information of users or items, and 3) they assume the relation between a user and an item is linear. We propose DaConA, a neural network based method for recommendation with a rating matrix and an auxiliary matrix. DaConA is designed with the following three main ideas. First, we propose a data context adaptation layer to extract pertinent features for different data contexts. Second, DaConA represents each entity with latent interaction vector and latent independence vector. Unlike previous methods, both of the two vectors are not limited in size. Lastly, while previous matrix factorization based methods predict missing values through the inner-product of latent vectors, DaConA learns a non-linear function of them via a neural network. We show that DaConA is a generalized algorithm including the standard matrix factorization and the collective matrix factorization as special cases. Through comprehensive experiments on real-world datasets, we show that DaConA provides the state-of-the-art accuracy.


Exploiting Contextual Independence In Probabilistic Inference

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Bayesian belief networks have grown to prominence because they provide compact representations for many problems for which probabilistic inference is appropriate, and there are algorithms to exploit this compactness. The next step is to allow compact representations of the conditional probabilities of a variable given its parents. In this paper we present such a representation that exploits contextual independence in terms of parent contexts; which variables act as parents may depend on the value of other variables. The internal representation is in terms of contextual factors (confactors) that is simply a pair of a context and a table. The algorithm, contextual variable elimination, is based on the standard variable elimination algorithm that eliminates the non-query variables in turn, but when eliminating a variable, the tables that need to be multiplied can depend on the context. This algorithm reduces to standard variable elimination when there is no contextual independence structure to exploit. We show how this can be much more efficient than variable elimination when there is structure to exploit. We explain why this new method can exploit more structure than previous methods for structured belief network inference and an analogous algorithm that uses trees.


Exploiting Contextual Independence In Probabilistic Inference

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Bayesian belief networks have grown to prominence because they provide compact representations for many problems for which probabilistic inference is appropriate, and there are algorithms to exploit this compactness. The next step is to allow compact representations of the conditional probabilities of a variable given its parents. In this paper we present such a representation that exploits contextual independence in terms of parent contexts; which variables act as parents may depend on the value of other variables. The internal representation is in terms of contextual factors (confactors) that is simply a pair of a context and a table. The algorithm, contextual variable elimination, is based on the standard variable elimination algorithm that eliminates the non-query variables in turn, but when eliminating a variable, the tables that need to be multiplied can depend on the context. This algorithm reduces to standard variable elimination when there is no contextual independence structure to exploit. We show how this can be much more efficient than variable elimination when there is structure to exploit. We explain why this new method can exploit more structure than previous methods for structured belief network inference and an analogous algorithm that uses trees.


Identifying Causal Effects via Context-specific Independence Relations

Neural Information Processing Systems

Causal effect identification considers whether an interventional probability distribution can be uniquely determined from a passively observed distribution in a given causal structure. If the generating system induces context-specific independence (CSI) relations, the existing identification procedures and criteria based on do-calculus are inherently incomplete. We show that deciding causal effect non-identifiability is NP-hard in the presence of CSIs. Motivated by this, we design a calculus and an automated search procedure for identifying causal effects in the presence of CSIs. The approach is provably sound and it includes standard do-calculus as a special case.