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Big Data Meet Cyber-Physical Systems: A Panoramic Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The world is witnessing an unprecedented growth of cyber-physical systems (CPS), which are foreseen to revolutionize our world {via} creating new services and applications in a variety of sectors such as environmental monitoring, mobile-health systems, intelligent transportation systems and so on. The {information and communication technology }(ICT) sector is experiencing a significant growth in { data} traffic, driven by the widespread usage of smartphones, tablets and video streaming, along with the significant growth of sensors deployments that are anticipated in the near future. {It} is expected to outstandingly increase the growth rate of raw sensed data. In this paper, we present the CPS taxonomy {via} providing a broad overview of data collection, storage, access, processing and analysis. Compared with other survey papers, this is the first panoramic survey on big data for CPS, where our objective is to provide a panoramic summary of different CPS aspects. Furthermore, CPS {require} cybersecurity to protect {them} against malicious attacks and unauthorized intrusion, which {become} a challenge with the enormous amount of data that is continuously being generated in the network. {Thus, we also} provide an overview of the different security solutions proposed for CPS big data storage, access and analytics. We also discuss big data meeting green challenges in the contexts of CPS.


Fusion of Federated Learning and Industrial Internet of Things: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) lays a new paradigm for the concept of Industry 4.0 and paves an insight for new industrial era. Nowadays smart machines and smart factories use machine learning/deep learning based models for incurring intelligence. However, storing and communicating the data to the cloud and end device leads to issues in preserving privacy. In order to address this issue, federated learning (FL) technology is implemented in IIoT by the researchers nowadays to provide safe, accurate, robust and unbiased models. Integrating FL in IIoT ensures that no local sensitive data is exchanged, as the distribution of learning models over the edge devices has become more common with FL. Therefore, only the encrypted notifications and parameters are communicated to the central server. In this paper, we provide a thorough overview on integrating FL with IIoT in terms of privacy, resource and data management. The survey starts by articulating IIoT characteristics and fundamentals of distributive and FL. The motivation behind integrating IIoT and FL for achieving data privacy preservation and on-device learning are summarized. Then we discuss the potential of using machine learning, deep learning and blockchain techniques for FL in secure IIoT. Further we analyze and summarize the ways to handle the heterogeneous and huge data. Comprehensive background on data and resource management are then presented, followed by applications of IIoT with FL in healthcare and automobile industry. Finally, we shed light on challenges, some possible solutions and potential directions for future research.


Machine Learning at the Network Edge: A Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Devices comprising the Internet of Things, such as sensors and small cameras, usually have small memories and limited computational power. The proliferation of such resource-constrained devices in recent years has led to the generation of large quantities of data. These data-producing devices are appealing targets for machine learning applications but struggle to run machine learning algorithms due to their limited computing capability. They typically offload input data to external computing systems (such as cloud servers) for further processing. The results of the machine learning computations are communicated back to the resource-scarce devices, but this worsens latency, leads to increased communication costs, and adds to privacy concerns. Therefore, efforts have been made to place additional computing devices at the edge of the network, i.e close to the IoT devices where the data is generated. Deploying machine learning systems on such edge devices alleviates the above issues by allowing computations to be performed close to the data sources. This survey describes major research efforts where machine learning has been deployed at the edge of computer networks.


An IoT Framework for Heart Disease Prediction based on MDCNN Classifier

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Nowadays, heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Predicting heart disease is a complex task since it requires experience along with advanced knowledge. Internet of Things (IoT) technology has lately been adopted in healthcare systems to collect sensor values for heart disease diagnosis and prediction. Many researchers have focused on the diagnosis of heart disease, yet the accuracy of the diagnosis results is low. To address this issue, an IoT framework is proposed to evaluate heart disease more accurately using a Modified Deep Convolutional Neural Network (MDCNN). The smartwatch and heart monitor device that is attached to the patient monitors the blood pressure and electrocardiogram (ECG). The MDCNN is utilized for classifying the received sensor data into normal and abnormal. The performance of the system is analyzed by comparing the proposed MDCNN with existing deep learning neural networks and logistic regression. The results demonstrate that the proposed MDCNN based heart disease prediction system performs better than other methods. The proposed method shows that for the maximum number of records, the MDCNN achieves an accuracy of 98.2 which is better than existing classifiers.


6G White Paper on Edge Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this white paper we provide a vision for 6G Edge Intelligence. Moving towards 5G and beyond the future 6G networks, intelligent solutions utilizing data-driven machine learning and artificial intelligence become crucial for several real-world applications including but not limited to, more efficient manufacturing, novel personal smart device environments and experiences, urban computing and autonomous traffic settings. We present edge computing along with other 6G enablers as a key component to establish the future 2030 intelligent Internet technologies as shown in this series of 6G White Papers. In this white paper, we focus in the domains of edge computing infrastructure and platforms, data and edge network management, software development for edge, and real-time and distributed training of ML/AI algorithms, along with security, privacy, pricing, and end-user aspects. We discuss the key enablers and challenges and identify the key research questions for the development of the Intelligent Edge services. As a main outcome of this white paper, we envision a transition from Internet of Things to Intelligent Internet of Intelligent Things and provide a roadmap for development of 6G Intelligent Edge.