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Towards Loosely-Coupling Knowledge Graph Embeddings and Ontology-based Reasoning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graph completion (a.k.a.~link prediction), i.e.,~the task of inferring missing information from knowledge graphs, is a widely used task in many applications, such as product recommendation and question answering. The state-of-the-art approaches of knowledge graph embeddings and/or rule mining and reasoning are data-driven and, thus, solely based on the information the input knowledge graph contains. This leads to unsatisfactory prediction results which make such solutions inapplicable to crucial domains such as healthcare. To further enhance the accuracy of knowledge graph completion we propose to loosely-couple the data-driven power of knowledge graph embeddings with domain-specific reasoning stemming from experts or entailment regimes (e.g., OWL2). In this way, we not only enhance the prediction accuracy with domain knowledge that may not be included in the input knowledge graph but also allow users to plugin their own knowledge graph embedding and reasoning method. Our initial results show that we enhance the MRR accuracy of vanilla knowledge graph embeddings by up to 3x and outperform hybrid solutions that combine knowledge graph embeddings with rule mining and reasoning up to 3.5x MRR.


Improved Representation Learning for Predicting Commonsense Ontologies

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent work in learning ontologies (hierarchical and partially-ordered structures) has leveraged the intrinsic geometry of spaces of learned representations to make predictions that automatically obey complex structural constraints. We explore two extensions of one such model, the order-embedding model for hierarchical relation learning, with an aim towards improved performance on text data for commonsense knowledge representation. Our first model jointly learns ordering relations and non-hierarchical knowledge in the form of raw text. Our second extension exploits the partial order structure of the training data to find long-distance triplet constraints among embeddings which are poorly enforced by the pairwise training procedure. We find that both incorporating free text and augmented training constraints improve over the original order-embedding model and other strong baselines.


The State of the Art in Developing Fuzzy Ontologies: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Conceptual formalism supported by typical ontologies may not be sufficient to represent uncertainty information which is caused due to the lack of clear cut boundaries between concepts of a domain. Fuzzy ontologies are proposed to offer a way to deal with this uncertainty. This paper describes the state of the art in developing fuzzy ontologies. The survey is produced by studying about 35 works on developing fuzzy ontologies from a batch of 100 articles in the field of fuzzy ontologies.


Revisiting Indirect Ontology Alignment : New Challenging Issues in Cross-Lingual Context

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Ontology alignment process is overwhelmingly cited in Knowledge Engineering as a key mechanism aimed at bypassing heterogeneity and reconciling various data sources, represented by ontologies, i.e., the the Semantic Web cornerstone. In such infrastructures and environments, it is inconceivable to assume that all ontologies covering a particular domain of knowledge are aligned in pairs. Moreover, the high performance of alignment approaches is closely related to two factors, i.e., time consumption and machine resource limitations. Thus, good quality alignments are valuable and it would be appropriate to exploit them. Based on this observation, this article introduces a new method of indirect alignment of ontologies in a cross-lingual context. Indeed, the proposed method deals with alignments of multilingual ontologies and implements an indirect ontology alignment strategy based on a composition and reuse of effective direct alignments. The trigger of the proposed method process is based on alignment algebra which governs the semantics composition of relationships and confidence values. The obtained results, after a thorough and detailed experiment are very encouraging and highlight many positive aspects about the new proposed method.


A Factorization Machine Framework for Testing Bigram Embeddings in Knowledgebase Completion

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Embedding-based Knowledge Base Completion models have so far mostly combined distributed representations of individual entities or relations to compute truth scores of missing links. Facts can however also be represented using pairwise embeddings, i.e. embeddings for pairs of entities and relations. In this paper we explore such bigram embeddings with a flexible Factorization Machine model and several ablations from it. We investigate the relevance of various bigram types on the fb15k237 dataset and find relative improvements compared to a compositional model.