Given a geodesic space (E, d), we show that full ordinal knowledge on the metric d-i.e. knowledge of the function D d : (w, x, y, z) $\rightarrow$ 1 d(w,x)$\le$d(y,z) , determines uniquely-up to a constant factor-the metric d. For a subspace En of n points of E, converging in Hausdorff distance to E, we construct a metric dn on En, based only on the knowledge of D d on En and establish a sharp upper bound of the Gromov-Hausdorff distance between (En, dn) and (E, d).

Xu, Hongteng, Luo, Dixin, Zha, Hongyuan, Carin, Lawrence

A novel Gromov-Wasserstein learning framework is proposed to jointly match (align) graphs and learn embedding vectors for the associated graph nodes. Using Gromov-Wasserstein discrepancy, we measure the dissimilarity between two graphs and find their correspondence, according to the learned optimal transport. The node embeddings associated with the two graphs are learned under the guidance of the optimal transport, the distance of which not only reflects the topological structure of each graph but also yields the correspondence across the graphs. These two learning steps are mutually-beneficial, and are unified here by minimizing the Gromov-Wasserstein discrepancy with structural regularizers. This framework leads to an optimization problem that is solved by a proximal point method. We apply the proposed method to matching problems in real-world networks, and demonstrate its superior performance compared to alternative approaches.

Gonzalez-Diaz, Rocio, Gutiérrez-Naranjo, Miguel A., Paluzo-Hidalgo, Eduardo

One of the main drawbacks of the practical use of neural networks is the long time needed in the training process. Such training process consists in an iterative change of parameters trying to minimize a loss function. These changes are driven by a dataset, which can be seen as a set of labeled points in an n-dimensional space. In this paper, we explore the concept of it representative dataset which is smaller than the original dataset and satisfies a nearness condition independent of isometric transformations. The representativeness is measured using persistence diagrams due to its computational efficiency. We also prove that the accuracy of the learning process of a neural network on a representative dataset is comparable with the accuracy on the original dataset when the neural network architecture is a perceptron and the loss function is the mean squared error. These theoretical results accompanied with experimentation open a door to the size reduction of the dataset in order to gain time in the training process of any neural network.

Vayer, Titouan, Chapel, Laetita, Flamary, Rémi, Tavenard, Romain, Courty, Nicolas

Optimal transport theory has recently found many applications in machine learning thanks to its capacity for comparing various machine learning objects considered as distributions. The Kantorovitch formulation, leading to the Wasserstein distance, focuses on the features of the elements of the objects but treat them independently, whereas the Gromov-Wasserstein distance focuses only on the relations between the elements, depicting the structure of the object, yet discarding its features. In this paper we propose to extend these distances in order to encode simultaneously both the feature and structure informations, resulting in the Fused Gromov-Wasserstein distance. We develop the mathematical framework for this novel distance, prove its metric and interpolation properties and provide a concentration result for the convergence of finite samples. We also illustrate and interpret its use in various contexts where structured objects are involved.

Vayer, Titouan, Flamary, Rémi, Tavenard, Romain, Chapel, Laetitia, Courty, Nicolas

Recently used in various machine learning contexts, the Gromov-Wasserstein distance (GW) allows for comparing distributions that do not necessarily lie in the same metric space. However, this Optimal Transport (OT) distance requires solving a complex non convex quadratic program which is most of the time very costly both in time and memory. Contrary to GW, the Wasserstein distance (W) enjoys several properties (e.g. duality) that permit large scale optimization. Among those, the Sliced Wasserstein (SW) distance exploits the direct solution of W on the line, that only requires sorting discrete samples in 1D. This paper propose a new divergence based on GW akin to SW. We first derive a closed form for GW when dealing with 1D distributions, based on a new result for the related quadratic assignment problem. We then define a novel OT discrepancy that can deal with large scale distributions via a slicing approach and we show how it relates to the GW distance while being $O(n^2)$ to compute. We illustrate the behavior of this so called Sliced Gromov-Wasserstein (SGW) discrepancy in experiments where we demonstrate its ability to tackle similar problems as GW while being several order of magnitudes faster to compute