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Dual Contrastive Learning: Text Classification via Label-Aware Data Augmentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Contrastive learning has achieved remarkable success in representation learning via self-supervision in unsupervised settings. However, effectively adapting contrastive learning to supervised learning tasks remains as a challenge in practice. In this work, we introduce a dual contrastive learning (DualCL) framework that simultaneously learns the features of input samples and the parameters of classifiers in the same space. Specifically, DualCL regards the parameters of the classifiers as augmented samples associating to different labels and then exploits the contrastive learning between the input samples and the augmented samples. Empirical studies on five benchmark text classification datasets and their low-resource version demonstrate the improvement in classification accuracy and confirm the capability of learning discriminative representations of DualCL.


Label Contrastive Coding based Graph Neural Network for Graph Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Graph classification is a critical research problem in many applications from different domains. In order to learn a graph classification model, the most widely used supervision component is an output layer together with classification loss (e.g.,cross-entropy loss together with softmax or margin loss). In fact, the discriminative information among instances are more fine-grained, which can benefit graph classification tasks. In this paper, we propose the novel Label Contrastive Coding based Graph Neural Network (LCGNN) to utilize label information more effectively and comprehensively. LCGNN still uses the classification loss to ensure the discriminability of classes. Meanwhile, LCGNN leverages the proposed Label Contrastive Loss derived from self-supervised learning to encourage instance-level intra-class compactness and inter-class separability. To power the contrastive learning, LCGNN introduces a dynamic label memory bank and a momentum updated encoder. Our extensive evaluations with eight benchmark graph datasets demonstrate that LCGNN can outperform state-of-the-art graph classification models. Experimental results also verify that LCGNN can achieve competitive performance with less training data because LCGNN exploits label information comprehensively.


Papers based on Contrastive Learning

#artificialintelligence

Abstract: Graph contrastive learning (GCL) has attracted a surge of attention due to its superior performance for learning node/graph representations without labels. However, in practice, unlabeled nodes for the given graph usually follow an implicit imbalanced class distribution, where the majority of nodes belong to a small fraction of classes (a.k.a., head class) and the rest classes occupy only a few samples (a.k.a., tail classes). This highly imbalanced class distribution inevitably deteriorates the quality of learned node representations in GCL. Indeed, we empirically find that most state-of-the-art GCL methods exhibit poor performance on imbalanced node classification. Motivated by this observation, we propose a principled GCL framework on Imbalanced node classification (ImGCL), which automatically and adaptively balances the representation learned from GCL without knowing the labels.


Intriguing Properties of Contrastive Losses

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Contrastive loss and its variants have become very popular recently for learning visual representations without supervision. In this work, we first generalize the standard contrastive loss based on cross entropy to a broader family of losses that share an abstract form of $\mathcal{L}_{\text{alignment}} + \lambda \mathcal{L}_{\text{distribution}}$, where hidden representations are encouraged to (1) be aligned under some transformations/augmentations, and (2) match a prior distribution of high entropy. We show that various instantiations of the generalized loss perform similarly under the presence of a multi-layer non-linear projection head, and the temperature scaling ($\tau$) widely used in the standard contrastive loss is (within a range) inversely related to the weighting ($\lambda$) between the two loss terms. We then study an intriguing phenomenon of feature suppression among competing features shared acros augmented views, such as "color distribution" vs "object class". We construct datasets with explicit and controllable competing features, and show that, for contrastive learning, a few bits of easy-to-learn shared features could suppress, and even fully prevent, the learning of other sets of competing features. Interestingly, this characteristic is much less detrimental in autoencoders based on a reconstruction loss. Existing contrastive learning methods critically rely on data augmentation to favor certain sets of features than others, while one may wish that a network would learn all competing features as much as its capacity allows.


i-Mix: A Strategy for Regularizing Contrastive Representation Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Contrastive representation learning has shown to be an effective way of learning representations from unlabeled data. However, much progress has been made in vision domains relying on data augmentations carefully designed using domain knowledge. In this work, we propose i-Mix, a simple yet effective regularization strategy for improving contrastive representation learning in both vision and non-vision domains. We cast contrastive learning as training a non-parametric classifier by assigning a unique virtual class to each data in a batch. Then, data instances are mixed in both the input and virtual label spaces, providing more augmented data during training. In experiments, we demonstrate that i-Mix consistently improves the quality of self-supervised representations across domains, resulting in significant performance gains on downstream tasks. Furthermore, we confirm its regularization effect via extensive ablation studies across model and dataset sizes.