3D object classification and segmentation using deep neural networks has been extremely successful. As the problem of identifying 3D objects has many safety-critical applications, the neural networks have to be robust against adversarial changes to the input data set. There is a growing body of research on generating human-imperceptible adversarial attacks and defenses against them in the 2D image classification domain. However, 3D objects have various differences with 2D images, and this specific domain has not been rigorously studied so far. We present a preliminary evaluation of adversarial attacks on deep 3D point cloud classifiers, namely PointNet and PointNet++, by evaluating both white-box and black-box adversarial attacks that were proposed for 2D images and extending those attacks to reduce the perceptibility of the perturbations in 3D space. We also show the high effectiveness of simple defenses against those attacks by proposing new defenses that exploit the unique structure of 3D point clouds. Finally, we attempt to explain the effectiveness of the defenses through the intrinsic structures of both the point clouds and the neural network architectures. Overall, we find that networks that process 3D point cloud data are weak to adversarial attacks, but they are also more easily defensible compared to 2D image classifiers. Our investigation will provide the groundwork for future studies on improving the robustness of deep neural networks that handle 3D data.
The importance of training robust neural network grows as 3D data is increasingly utilized in deep learning for vision tasks, like autonomous driving. We examine this problem from the perspective of the attacker, which is necessary in understanding how neural networks can be exploited, and thus defended. More specifically, we propose adversarial attacks based on solving different optimization problems, like minimizing the perceptibility of our generated adversarial examples, or maintaining a uniform density distribution of points across the adversarial object surfaces. Our four proposed algorithms for attacking 3D point cloud classification are all highly successful on existing neural networks, and we find that some of them are even effective against previously proposed point removal defenses.
Point clouds provide a flexible and natural representation usable in countless applications such as robotics or self-driving cars. Recently, deep neural networks operating on raw point cloud data have shown promising results on supervised learning tasks such as object classification and semantic segmentation. While massive point cloud datasets can be captured using modern scanning technology, manually labelling such large 3D point clouds for supervised learning tasks is a cumbersome process. This necessitates effective unsupervised learning methods that can produce representations such that downstream tasks require significantly fewer annotated samples. We propose a novel method for unsupervised learning on raw point cloud data in which a neural network is trained to predict the spatial relationship between two point cloud segments. While solving this task, representations that capture semantic properties of the point cloud are learned. Our method outperforms previous unsupervised learning approaches in downstream object classification and segmentation tasks and performs on par with fully supervised methods.
Note that most widely used benchmark datasets for point cloud classification only contain foreground objects. Therefore, we generate a new dataset, where each point cloud contains both the foreground object and the background. In this new dataset, the background is composed of points that carry no relevant information of the foreground. We will introduce details in Section 5. Metric 3, rotation robustness: The rotation robustness is proposed to measure whether a DNN uses similar subsets of two point clouds to compute the intermediate-layer feature, if the two point clouds have the same shape but different orientations. Let X θ 1 and X θ 2 denote the point clouds that have the same global shape but different orientations θ 1 and θ 2. To quantify the similarity of the attention on the two point clouds, we compute the Jensen-Shannon divergence between the distributions of the perturbed inputs ˆ X θ 1 X θ 1 δ 1 and ˆ X θ 2 X θ 2 δ 2. ˆ X θ 1 and ˆ X θ 2 denote the perturbed inputs, which are computed to measure information discarding in Equation (1).
Emergence of the utility of 3D point cloud data in critical vision tasks (e.g., ADAS) urges researchers to pay more attention to the robustness of 3D representations and deep networks. To this end, we develop an attack and defense scheme, dedicated to 3D point cloud data, for preventing 3D point clouds from manipulated as well as pursuing noise-tolerable 3D representation. A set of novel 3D point cloud attack operations are proposed via pointwise gradient perturbation and adversarial point attachment / detachment. We then develop a flexible perturbation-measurement scheme for 3D point cloud data to detect potential attack data or noisy sensing data. Extensive experimental results on common point cloud benchmarks demonstrate the validity of the proposed 3D attack and defense framework.