Collaborating Authors

Extending Adversarial Attacks and Defenses to Deep 3D Point Cloud Classifiers Machine Learning

3D object classification and segmentation using deep neural networks has been extremely successful. As the problem of identifying 3D objects has many safety-critical applications, the neural networks have to be robust against adversarial changes to the input data set. There is a growing body of research on generating human-imperceptible adversarial attacks and defenses against them in the 2D image classification domain. However, 3D objects have various differences with 2D images, and this specific domain has not been rigorously studied so far. We present a preliminary evaluation of adversarial attacks on deep 3D point cloud classifiers, namely PointNet and PointNet++, by evaluating both white-box and black-box adversarial attacks that were proposed for 2D images and extending those attacks to reduce the perceptibility of the perturbations in 3D space. We also show the high effectiveness of simple defenses against those attacks by proposing new defenses that exploit the unique structure of 3D point clouds. Finally, we attempt to explain the effectiveness of the defenses through the intrinsic structures of both the point clouds and the neural network architectures. Overall, we find that networks that process 3D point cloud data are weak to adversarial attacks, but they are also more easily defensible compared to 2D image classifiers. Our investigation will provide the groundwork for future studies on improving the robustness of deep neural networks that handle 3D data.

Local Aggressive Adversarial Attacks on 3D Point Cloud Artificial Intelligence

Deep neural networks are found to be prone to adversarial examples which could deliberately fool the model to make mistakes. Recently, a few of works expand this task from 2D image to 3D point cloud by using global point cloud optimization. However, the perturbations of global point are not effective for misleading the victim model. First, not all points are important in optimization toward misleading. Abundant points account considerable distortion budget but contribute trivially to attack. Second, the multi-label optimization is suboptimal for adversarial attack, since it consumes extra energy in finding multi-label victim model collapse and causes instance transformation to be dissimilar to any particular instance. Third, the independent adversarial and perceptibility losses, caring misclassification and dissimilarity separately, treat the updating of each point equally without a focus. Therefore, once perceptibility loss approaches its budget threshold, all points would be stock in the surface of hypersphere and attack would be locked in local optimality. Therefore, we propose a local aggressive adversarial attacks (L3A) to solve above issues. Technically, we select a bunch of salient points, the high-score subset of point cloud according to gradient, to perturb. Then a flow of aggressive optimization strategies are developed to reinforce the unperceptive generation of adversarial examples toward misleading victim models. Extensive experiments on PointNet, PointNet++ and DGCNN demonstrate the state-of-the-art performance of our method against existing adversarial attack methods.

Nudge Attacks on Point-Cloud DNNs Artificial Intelligence

The wide adaption of 3D point-cloud data in safety-critical applications such as autonomous driving makes adversarial samples a real threat. Existing adversarial attacks on point clouds achieve high success rates but modify a large number of points, which is usually difficult to do in real-life scenarios. In this paper, we explore a family of attacks that only perturb a few points of an input point cloud, and name them nudge attacks. We demonstrate that nudge attacks can successfully flip the results of modern point-cloud DNNs. We present two variants, gradient-based and decision-based, showing their effectiveness in white-box and grey-box scenarios. Our extensive experiments show nudge attacks are effective at generating both targeted and untargeted adversarial point clouds, by changing a few points or even a single point from the entire point-cloud input. We find that with a single point we can reliably thwart predictions in 12--80% of cases, whereas 10 points allow us to further increase this to 37--95%. Finally, we discuss the possible defenses against such attacks, and explore their limitations.

On the Adversarial Robustness of 3D Point Cloud Classification Artificial Intelligence

Though a few defenses against adversarial point cloud classification have been proposed, it remains unknown whether they can provide real robustness. To this end, we perform the first security analysis of state-of-the-art defenses and design adaptive attacks on them. Our 100% adaptive attack success rates demonstrate that current defense designs are still vulnerable. Since adversarial training (AT) is believed to be the most effective defense, we present the first in-depth study showing how AT behaves in point cloud classification and identify that the required symmetric function (pooling operation) is paramount to the model's robustness under AT. Through our systematic analysis, we find that the default used fixed pooling operations (e.g., MAX pooling) generally weaken AT's performance in point cloud classification. Still, sorting-based parametric pooling operations can significantly improve the models' robustness. Based on the above insights, we further propose DeepSym, a deep symmetric pooling operation, to architecturally advance the adversarial robustness under AT to 47.0% without sacrificing nominal accuracy, outperforming the original design and a strong baseline by 28.5% ( 2.6) and 6.5%, respectively, in PointNet. Despite the prominent achievements that deep neural networks (DNN) have reached in the past decade, adversarial attacks (Szegedy et al., 2013) are becoming the Achilles' heel in modern deep learning deployments, where adversaries generate imperceptible perturbations to mislead the DNN models. Numerous attacks have been deployed in various 2D vision tasks, such as classification (Carlini & Wagner, 2017), object detection (Song et al., 2018), and segmentation (Xie et al., 2017). Since adversarial robustness is a critical feature, tremendous efforts have been devoted to defending against 2D adversarial images (Guo et al., 2017; Papernot et al., 2016; Madry et al., 2018).

On Isometry Robustness of Deep 3D Point Cloud Models under Adversarial Attacks Machine Learning

While deep learning in 3D domain has achieved revolutionary performance in many tasks, the robustness of these models has not been sufficiently studied or explored. Regarding the 3D adversarial samples, most existing works focus on manipulation of local points, which may fail to invoke the global geometry properties, like robustness under linear projection that preserves the Euclidean distance, i.e., isometry. In this work, we show that existing state-of-the-art deep 3D models are extremely vulnerable to isometry transformations. Armed with the Thompson Sampling, we develop a black-box attack with success rate over 95\% on ModelNet40 data set. Incorporating with the Restricted Isometry Property, we propose a novel framework of white-box attack on top of spectral norm based perturbation. In contrast to previous works, our adversarial samples are experimentally shown to be strongly transferable. Evaluated on a sequence of prevailing 3D models, our white-box attack achieves success rates from 98.88\% to 100\%. It maintains a successful attack rate over 95\% even within an imperceptible rotation range $[\pm 2.81^{\circ}]$.