Collaborating Authors

Extending Adversarial Attacks and Defenses to Deep 3D Point Cloud Classifiers Machine Learning

3D object classification and segmentation using deep neural networks has been extremely successful. As the problem of identifying 3D objects has many safety-critical applications, the neural networks have to be robust against adversarial changes to the input data set. There is a growing body of research on generating human-imperceptible adversarial attacks and defenses against them in the 2D image classification domain. However, 3D objects have various differences with 2D images, and this specific domain has not been rigorously studied so far. We present a preliminary evaluation of adversarial attacks on deep 3D point cloud classifiers, namely PointNet and PointNet++, by evaluating both white-box and black-box adversarial attacks that were proposed for 2D images and extending those attacks to reduce the perceptibility of the perturbations in 3D space. We also show the high effectiveness of simple defenses against those attacks by proposing new defenses that exploit the unique structure of 3D point clouds. Finally, we attempt to explain the effectiveness of the defenses through the intrinsic structures of both the point clouds and the neural network architectures. Overall, we find that networks that process 3D point cloud data are weak to adversarial attacks, but they are also more easily defensible compared to 2D image classifiers. Our investigation will provide the groundwork for future studies on improving the robustness of deep neural networks that handle 3D data.

Playing the Game of Universal Adversarial Perturbations Machine Learning

We study the problem of learning classifiers robust to universal adversarial perturbations. While prior work approaches this problem via robust optimization, adversarial training, or input transformation, we instead phrase it as a two-player zero-sum game. In this new formulation, both players simultaneously play the same game, where one player chooses a classifier that minimizes a classification loss whilst the other player creates an adversarial perturbation that increases the same loss when applied to every sample in the training set. By observing that performing a classification (respectively creating adversarial samples) is the best response to the other player, we propose a novel extension of a game-theoretic algorithm, namely fictitious play, to the domain of training robust classifiers. Finally, we empirically show the robustness and versatility of our approach in two defence scenarios where universal attacks are performed on several image classification datasets -- CIFAR10, CIFAR100 and ImageNet.

A Method for Computing Class-wise Universal Adversarial Perturbations Machine Learning

We present an algorithm for computing class-specific universal adversarial perturbations for deep neural networks. Such perturbations can induce mis-classification in a large fraction of images of a specific class. Unlike previous methods that use iterative optimization for computing a universal perturbation, the proposed method employs a perturbation that is a linear function of weights of the neural network and hence can be computed much faster. The method does not require any training data and has no hyper-parameters. We also study the characteristics of the decision boundaries learned by standard and adversarially trained models to understand the universal adversarial perturbations. The vulnerability of state-of-the-art neural networks to adversarial perturbations was first studied in (Szegedy et al., 2014).

Trust Region Based Adversarial Attack on Neural Networks Machine Learning

Deep Neural Networks are quite vulnerable to adversarial perturbations. Current state-of-the-art adversarial attack methods typically require very time consuming hyper-parameter tuning, or require many iterations to solve an optimization based adversarial attack. To address this problem, we present a new family of trust region based adversarial attacks, with the goal of computing adversarial perturbations efficiently. We propose several attacks based on variants of the trust region optimization method. We test the proposed methods on Cifar-10 and ImageNet datasets using several different models including AlexNet, ResNet-50, VGG-16, and DenseNet-121 models. Our methods achieve comparable results with the Carlini-Wagner (CW) attack, but with significant speed up of up to $37\times$, for the VGG-16 model on a Titan Xp GPU. For the case of ResNet-50 on ImageNet, we can bring down its classification accuracy to less than 0.1\% with at most $1.5\%$ relative $L_\infty$ (or $L_2$) perturbation requiring only $1.02$ seconds as compared to $27.04$ seconds for the CW attack. We have open sourced our method which can be accessed at [1].

Detecting Adversarial Perturbations with Saliency Machine Learning

In this paper we propose a novel method for detecting adversarial examples by training a binary classifier with both origin data and saliency data. In the case of image classification model, saliency simply explain how the model make decisions by identifying significant pixels for prediction. A model shows wrong classification output always learns wrong features and shows wrong saliency as well. Our approach shows good performance on detecting adversarial perturbations. We quantitatively evaluate generalization ability of the detector, showing that detectors trained with strong adversaries perform well on weak adversaries.