Epilepsy occurs when localized electrical activity of neurons suffer from an imbalance. One of the most adequate methods for diagnosing and monitoring is via the analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. Despite there is a wide range of alternatives to characterize and classify EEG signals for epilepsy analysis purposes, many key aspects related to accuracy and physiological interpretation are still considered as open issues. In this paper, this work performs an exploratory study in order to identify the most adequate frequently-used methods for characterizing and classifying epileptic seizures. In this regard, a comparative study is carried out on several subsets of features using four representative classifiers: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM).
We present a practical health-theme machine learning (ML) application concerning `AI for social good' domain for `Producing Good Outcomes' track. In particular, the solution is concerning the problem of a potential elderly adult dementia onset prediction in aging societies. The paper discusses our attempt and encouraging preliminary study results of behavioral responses analysis in a working memory-based emotional evaluation experiment. We focus on the development of digital biomarkers for dementia progress detection and monitoring. We present a behavioral data collection concept for a subsequent AI-based application together with a range of regression encouraging results of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores in the leave-one-subject-out cross-validation setup. The regressor input variables include experimental subject's emotional valence and arousal recognition responses, as well as reaction times, together with self-reported education levels and ages, obtained from a group of twenty older adults taking part in the reported data collection project. The presented results showcase the potential social benefits of artificial intelligence application for elderly and establish a step forward to develop ML approaches, for the subsequent application of simple behavioral objective testing for dementia onset diagnostics replacing subjective MoCA.
Event-based models (EBM) are a class of disease progression models that can be used to estimate temporal ordering of neuropathological changes from cross-sectional data. Current EBMs only handle scalar biomarkers, such as regional volumes, as inputs. However, regional aggregates are a crude summary of the underlying high-resolution images, potentially limiting the accuracy of EBM. Therefore, we propose a novel method that exploits high-dimensional voxel-wise imaging biomarkers: n-dimensional discriminative EBM (nDEBM). nDEBM is based on an insight that mixture modeling, which is a key element of conventional EBMs, can be replaced by a more scalable semi-supervised support vector machine (SVM) approach. This SVM is used to estimate the degree of abnormality of each region which is then used to obtain subject-specific disease progression patterns. These patterns are in turn used for estimating the mean ordering by fitting a generalized Mallows model. In order to validate the biomarker ordering obtained using nDEBM, we also present a framework for Simulation of Imaging Biomarkers' Temporal Evolution (SImBioTE) that mimics neurodegeneration in brain regions. SImBioTE trains variational auto-encoders (VAE) in different brain regions independently to simulate images at varying stages of disease progression. We also validate nDEBM clinically using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). In both experiments, nDEBM using high-dimensional features gave better performance than state-of-the-art EBM methods using regional volume biomarkers. This suggests that nDEBM is a promising approach for disease progression modeling.
Analysis of spontaneous speech is an important tool for clinical linguists to diagnose various dementia types that affect the language processing areas. Prosody is affected by some dementia types, most notably Parkinson's disease (PD, degradation of voice quality, unstable pitch), Alzheimer's disease (AD, monotonic pitch), and the non-fluent type of Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA-NF, hesitant, non-fluent speech). Prosodic features can be computed efficiently by software. In this study, we evaluate the performance of a SVM classifier that is trained on prosodic features only. The limitation to only prosody yields baseline results that can be used in a later stage to evaluate the added effect of variables of (morpho) syntax. The goal is to distinguish different dementia types based on the recorded speech. Results show that the classifier can distinguish some dementia types (PPA-NF, AD), but not others (PD, PPA-SD).
In modern data science, dynamic tensor data is prevailing in numerous applications. An important task is to characterize the relationship between such dynamic tensor and external covariates. However, the tensor data is often only partially observed, rendering many existing methods inapplicable. In this article, we develop a regression model with partially observed dynamic tensor as the response and external covariates as the predictor. We introduce the low-rank, sparsity and fusion structures on the regression coefficient tensor, and consider a loss function projected over the observed entries. We develop an efficient non-convex alternating updating algorithm, and derive the finite-sample error bound of the actual estimator from each step of our optimization algorithm. Unobserved entries in tensor response have imposed serious challenges. As a result, our proposal differs considerably in terms of estimation algorithm, regularity conditions, as well as theoretical properties, compared to the existing tensor completion or tensor response regression solutions. We illustrate the efficacy of our proposed method using simulations, and two real applications, a neuroimaging dementia study and a digital advertising study.