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Deep Narrow Boltzmann Machines are Universal Approximators

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We show that deep narrow Boltzmann machines are universal approximators of probability distributions on the activities of their visible units, provided they have sufficiently many hidden layers, each containing the same number of units as the visible layer. We show that, within certain parameter domains, deep Boltzmann machines can be studied as feedforward networks. We provide upper and lower bounds on the sufficient depth and width of universal approximators. These results settle various intuitions regarding undirected networks and, in particular, they show that deep narrow Boltzmann machines are at least as compact universal approximators as narrow sigmoid belief networks and restricted Boltzmann machines, with respect to the currently available bounds for those models.


ResNet with one-neuron hidden layers is a Universal Approximator

Neural Information Processing Systems

We demonstrate that a very deep ResNet with stacked modules that have one neuron per hidden layer and ReLU activation functions can uniformly approximate any Lebesgue integrable function in d dimensions, i.e. \ell_1(R d). Due to the identity mapping inherent to ResNets, our network has alternating layers of dimension one and d. This stands in sharp contrast to fully connected networks, which are not universal approximators if their width is the input dimension d [21,11]. Hence, our result implies an increase in representational power for narrow deep networks by the ResNet architecture. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.


Meta-Learning and Universality: Deep Representations and Gradient Descent can Approximate any Learning Algorithm

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Learning to learn is a powerful paradigm for enabling models to learn from data more effectively and efficiently. A popular approach to meta-learning is to train a recurrent model to read in a training dataset as input and output the parameters of a learned model, or output predictions for new test inputs. Alternatively, a more recent approach to meta-learning aims to acquire deep representations that can be effectively fine-tuned, via standard gradient descent, to new tasks. In this paper, we consider the meta-learning problem from the perspective of universality, formalizing the notion of learning algorithm approximation and comparing the expressive power of the aforementioned recurrent models to the more recent approaches that embed gradient descent into the meta-learner. In particular, we seek to answer the following question: does deep representation combined with standard gradient descent have sufficient capacity to approximate any learning algorithm? We find that this is indeed true, and further find, in our experiments, that gradient-based meta-learning consistently leads to learning strategies that generalize more widely compared to those represented by recurrent models.


The Expressive Power of Neural Networks: A View from the Width

Neural Information Processing Systems

The expressive power of neural networks is important for understanding deep learning. Most existing works consider this problem from the view of the depth of a network. In this paper, we study how width affects the expressiveness of neural networks. Classical results state that depth-bounded (e.g. depth-2) networks with suitable activation functions are universal approximators. We show a universal approximation theorem for width-bounded ReLU networks: width-(n + 4) ReLU networks, where n is the input dimension, are universal approximators. Moreover, except for a measure zero set, all functions cannot be approximated by width-n ReLU networks, which exhibits a phase transition. Several recent works demonstrate the benefits of depth by proving the depth-efficiency of neural networks. That is, there are classes of deep networks which cannot be realized by any shallow network whose size is no more than an exponential bound. Here we pose the dual question on the width-efficiency of ReLU networks: Are there wide networks that cannot be realized by narrow networks whose size is not substantially larger? We show that there exist classes of wide networks which cannot be realized by any narrow network whose depth is no more than a polynomial bound. On the other hand, we demonstrate by extensive experiments that narrow networks whose size exceed the polynomial bound by a constant factor can approximate wide and shallow network with high accuracy. Our results provide more comprehensive evidence that depth may be more effective than width for the expressiveness of ReLU networks.


Approximation capabilities of neural networks on unbounded domains

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We prove universal approximation theorems of neural networks in $L^{p}(\mathbb{R} \times [0, 1]^n)$, under the conditions that $p \in [2, \infty)$ and that the activiation function belongs to among others a monotone sigmoid, relu, elu, softplus or leaky relu. Our results partially generalize classical universal approximation theorems on $[0,1]^n.$