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Adaptive Regularization via Residual Smoothing in Deep Learning Optimization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present an adaptive regularization algorithm that can be effectively applied to the optimization problem in deep learning framework. Our regularization algorithm aims to take into account the fitness of data to the current state of model in the determination of regularity to achieve better generalization. The degree of regularization at each element in the target space of the neural network architecture is determined based on the residual at each optimization iteration in an adaptive way. Our adaptive regularization algorithm is designed to apply a diffusion process driven by the heat equation with spatially varying diffusivity depending on the probability density function following a certain distribution of residual. Our data-driven regularity is imposed by adaptively smoothing a simplified objective function in which the explicit regularization term is omitted in an alternating manner between the evaluation of residual and the determination of the degree of its regularity. The effectiveness of our algorithm is empirically demonstrated by the numerical experiments in the application of image classification problems, indicating that our algorithm outperforms other commonly used optimization algorithms in terms of generalization using popular deep learning models and benchmark datasets.


CLIP: Cheap Lipschitz Training of Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Despite the large success of deep neural networks (DNN) in recent years, most neural networks still lack mathematical guarantees in terms of stability. For instance, DNNs are vulnerable to small or even imperceptible input perturbations, so called adversarial examples, that can cause false predictions. This instability can have severe consequences in applications which influence the health and safety of humans, e.g., biomedical imaging or autonomous driving. While bounding the Lipschitz constant of a neural network improves stability, most methods rely on restricting the Lipschitz constants of each layer which gives a poor bound for the actual Lipschitz constant. In this paper we investigate a variational regularization method named CLIP for controlling the Lipschitz constant of a neural network, which can easily be integrated into the training procedure. We mathematically analyze the proposed model, in particular discussing the impact of the chosen regularization parameter on the output of the network. Finally, we numerically evaluate our method on both a nonlinear regression problem and the MNIST and Fashion-MNIST classification databases, and compare our results with a weight regularization approach.


Regularization Matters in Policy Optimization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep Reinforcement Learning (Deep RL) has been receiving increasingly more attention thanks to its encouraging performance on a variety of control tasks. Yet, conventional regularization techniques in training neural networks (e.g., $L_2$ regularization, dropout) have been largely ignored in RL methods, possibly because agents are typically trained and evaluated in the same environment. In this work, we present the first comprehensive study of regularization techniques with multiple policy optimization algorithms on continuous control tasks. Interestingly, we find conventional regularization techniques on the policy networks can often bring large improvement on the task performance, and the improvement is typically more significant when the task is more difficult. We also compare with the widely used entropy regularization and find $L_2$ regularization is generally better. Our findings are further confirmed to be robust against the choice of training hyperparameters. We also study the effects of regularizing different components and find that only regularizing the policy network is typically enough. We hope our study provides guidance for future practices in regularizing policy optimization algorithms.


Post-synaptic potential regularization has potential

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Improving generalization is one of the main challenges for training deep neural networks on classification tasks. In particular, a number of techniques have been proposed, aiming to boost the performance on unseen data: from standard data augmentation techniques to the $\ell_2$ regularization, dropout, batch normalization, entropy-driven SGD and many more.\\ In this work we propose an elegant, simple and principled approach: post-synaptic potential regularization (PSP). We tested this regularization on a number of different state-of-the-art scenarios. Empirical results show that PSP achieves a classification error comparable to more sophisticated learning strategies in the MNIST scenario, while improves the generalization compared to $\ell_2$ regularization in deep architectures trained on CIFAR-10.


Improved Consistency Regularization for GANs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent work has increased the performance of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) by enforcing a consistency cost on the discriminator. We improve on this technique in several ways. We first show that consistency regularization can introduce artifacts into the GAN samples and explain how to fix this issue. We then propose several modifications to the consistency regularization procedure designed to improve its performance. We carry out extensive experiments quantifying the benefit of our improvements. For unconditional image synthesis on CIFAR-10 and CelebA, our modifications yield the best known FID scores on various GAN architectures. For conditional image synthesis on CIFAR-10, we improve the state-of-the-art FID score from 11.48 to 9.21. Finally, on ImageNet-2012, we apply our technique to the original BigGAN model and improve the FID from 6.66 to 5.38, which is the best score at that model size.