In 2012, IBM Watson went to medical school. So said The New York Times, announcing that the tech giant's artificially intelligent question-and-answer machine had begun a "stint as a medical student" at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine. This was just a metaphor. Clinicians were helping IBM train Watson for use in medical research. But as metaphors go, it wasn't a very good one.
In a Harvard Business School classroom in Boston, MA, robots are on the rise. MBA students are trying to crack a case study on the self-driving cars pioneered by Tesla, Google, and Uber. What is the potential for robots to reshape our roads? And what are the challenges and opportunities of entering that business? This is a case that David Yoffie, professor of international business administration, believes is essential reading for tomorrow's business leaders.
At Harvard Business School (HBS), MBA students are pondering a future when robots rule the road. The pioneers of the driverless car movement -- such as Google and Tesla -- are mapping the MBAs a future in which artificial intelligence and robotics will likely impact the entire job market and global economy. David Yoffie, professor of international business administration at HBS, believes such disruptive technologies are now an "essential" part of the b-school landscape. "What I'm trying to teach students is: What can these technologies deliver? And what are the challenges and opportunities for a company that does AI?" he says.
Estimated differences: Adjusted mortality: 11.07% Regarding the number of regression parameters: Not explicitly listed, but by the following paragraph, I would suspect there are at least hundreds of regression parameters (such as an indicator of medical of school attended). "We accounted for patient characteristics, physician characteristics, and hospital fixed effects. Patient characteristics included patient age in 5-year increments (the oldest group was categorized as 95 years), sex, race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and other), primary diagnosis (Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group), 27 coexisting conditions (determined using the Elixhauser comorbidity index28), median annual household income estimated from residential zip codes (in deciles), an indicator variable for Medicaid coverage, and indicator variables for year. Physician characteristics included physician age in 5-year increments (the oldest group was categorized as 70 years), indicator variables for the medical schools from which the physicians graduated, and type of medical training (ie, allopathic vs osteopathic29 training)."
There is much more to a successful technology product than its code. Companies seeking to exploit artificial intelligence need employees who understand how machine learning works and how it can be applied in business. But people who can do both are hard to find. Smith School of Business in Toronto is trying to fill that gap with North America's -- and it believes the world's -- first master of management in artificial intelligence (MMAI). This month, 40 students are beginning the programme, studying topics such as how to apply AI in finance and the ethical implications of the technology, intertwined with hands-on training in natural language processing and deep learning (the use of artificial neural networks in advanced pattern recognition).