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Neural User Simulation for Corpus-based Policy Optimisation for Spoken Dialogue Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

User Simulators are one of the major tools that enable offline training of task-oriented dialogue systems. For this task the Agenda-Based User Simulator (ABUS) is often used. The ABUS is based on hand-crafted rules and its output is in semantic form. Issues arise from both properties such as limited diversity and the inability to interface a text-level belief tracker. This paper introduces the Neural User Simulator (NUS) whose behaviour is learned from a corpus and which generates natural language, hence needing a less labelled dataset than simulators generating a semantic output. In comparison to much of the past work on this topic, which evaluates user simulators on corpus-based metrics, we use the NUS to train the policy of a reinforcement learning based Spoken Dialogue System. The NUS is compared to the ABUS by evaluating the policies that were trained using the simulators. Cross-model evaluation is performed i.e. training on one simulator and testing on the other. Furthermore, the trained policies are tested on real users. In both evaluation tasks the NUS outperformed the ABUS.


Flexible and Scalable State Tracking Framework for Goal-Oriented Dialogue Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Goal-oriented dialogue systems typically rely on components specifically developed for a single task or domain. This limits such systems in two different ways: If there is an update in the task domain, the dialogue system usually needs to be updated or completely re-trained. It is also harder to extend such dialogue systems to different and multiple domains. The dialogue state tracker in conventional dialogue systems is one such component - it is usually designed to fit a well-defined application domain. For example, it is common for a state variable to be a categorical distribution over a manually-predefined set of entities (Henderson et al., 2013), resulting in an inflexible and hard-to-extend dialogue system. In this paper, we propose a new approach for dialogue state tracking that can generalize well over multiple domains without incorporating any domain-specific knowledge. Under this framework, discrete dialogue state variables are learned independently and the information of a predefined set of possible values for dialogue state variables is not required. Furthermore, it enables adding arbitrary dialogue context as features and allows for multiple values to be associated with a single state variable. These characteristics make it much easier to expand the dialogue state space. We evaluate our framework using the widely used dialogue state tracking challenge data set (DSTC2) and show that our framework yields competitive results with other state-of-the-art results despite incorporating little domain knowledge. We also show that this framework can benefit from widely available external resources such as pre-trained word embeddings.


Cross-domain Dialogue Policy Transfer via Simultaneous Speech-act and Slot Alignment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Dialogue policy transfer enables us to build dialogue policies in a target domain with little data by leveraging knowledge from a source domain with plenty of data. Dialogue sentences are usually represented by speech-acts and domain slots, and the dialogue policy transfer is usually achieved by assigning a slot mapping matrix based on human heuristics. However, existing dialogue policy transfer methods cannot transfer across dialogue domains with different speech-acts, for example, between systems built by different companies. Also, they depend on either common slots or slot entropy, which are not available when the source and target slots are totally disjoint and no database is available to calculate the slot entropy. To solve this problem, we propose a Policy tRansfer across dOMaIns and SpEech-acts (PROMISE) model, which is able to transfer dialogue policies across domains with different speech-acts and disjoint slots. The PROMISE model can learn to align different speech-acts and slots simultaneously, and it does not require common slots or the calculation of the slot entropy. Experiments on both real-world dialogue data and simulations demonstrate that PROMISE model can effectively transfer dialogue policies across domains with different speech-acts and disjoint slots.


KddRES: A Multi-level Knowledge-driven Dialogue Dataset for Restaurant Towards Customized Dialogue System

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Compared with CrossWOZ (Chinese) and MultiWOZ (English) dataset which have coarse-grained information, there is no dataset which handle fine-grained and hierarchical level information properly. In this paper, we publish a first Cantonese knowledge-driven Dialogue Dataset for REStaurant (KddRES) in Hong Kong, which grounds the information in multi-turn conversations to one specific restaurant. Our corpus contains 0.8k conversations which derive from 10 restaurants with various styles in different regions. In addition to that, we designed fine-grained slots and intents to better capture semantic information. The benchmark experiments and data statistic analysis show the diversity and rich annotations of our dataset. We believe the publish of KddRES can be a necessary supplement of current dialogue datasets and more suitable and valuable for small and middle enterprises (SMEs) of society, such as build a customized dialogue system for each restaurant. The corpus and benchmark models are publicly available.


A Benchmarking Environment for Reinforcement Learning Based Task Oriented Dialogue Management

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Dialogue assistants are rapidly becoming an indispensable daily aid. To avoid the significant effort needed to hand-craft the required dialogue flow, the Dialogue Management (DM) module can be cast as a continuous Markov Decision Process (MDP) and trained through Reinforcement Learning (RL). Several RL models have been investigated over recent years. However, the lack of a common benchmarking framework makes it difficult to perform a fair comparison between different models and their capability to generalise to different environments. Therefore, this paper proposes a set of challenging simulated environments for dialogue model development and evaluation. To provide some baselines, we investigate a number of representative parametric algorithms, namely deep reinforcement learning algorithms - DQN, A2C and Natural Actor-Critic and compare them to a non-parametric model, GP-SARSA. Both the environments and policy models are implemented using the publicly available PyDial toolkit and released on-line, in order to establish a testbed framework for further experiments and to facilitate experimental reproducibility.