Mnih, Volodymyr, Larochelle, Hugo, Hinton, Geoffrey E.

Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines (CRBMs) are rich probabilistic models that have recently been applied to a wide range of problems, including collaborative filtering, classification, and modeling motion capture data. While much progress has been made in training non-conditional RBMs, these algorithms are not applicable to conditional models and there has been almost no work on training and generating predictions from conditional RBMs for structured output problems. We first argue that standard Contrastive Divergence-based learning may not be suitable for training CRBMs. We then identify two distinct types of structured output prediction problems and propose an improved learning algorithm for each. The first problem type is one where the output space has arbitrary structure but the set of likely output configurations is relatively small, such as in multi-label classification. The second problem is one where the output space is arbitrarily structured but where the output space variability is much greater, such as in image denoising or pixel labeling. We show that the new learning algorithms can work much better than Contrastive Divergence on both types of problems.

Morningstar, Alan, Melko, Roger G.

It is well established that neural networks with deep architectures perform better than shallow networks for many tasks in machine learning. In statistical physics, while there has been recent interest in representing physical data with generative modelling, the focus has been on shallow neural networks. A natural question to ask is whether deep neural networks hold any advantage over shallow networks in representing such data. We investigate this question by using unsupervised, generative graphical models to learn the probability distribution of a two-dimensional Ising system. Deep Boltzmann machines, deep belief networks, and deep restricted Boltzmann networks are trained on thermal spin configurations from this system, and compared to the shallow architecture of the restricted Boltzmann machine. We benchmark the models, focussing on the accuracy of generating energetic observables near the phase transition, where these quantities are most difficult to approximate. Interestingly, after training the generative networks, we observe that the accuracy essentially depends only on the number of neurons in the first hidden layer of the network, and not on other model details such as network depth or model type. This is evidence that shallow networks are more efficient than deep networks at representing physical probability distributions associated with Ising systems near criticality.

Boulanger-Lewandowski, Nicolas, Bengio, Yoshua, Vincent, Pascal

We investigate the problem of modeling symbolic sequences of polyphonic music in a completely general piano-roll representation. We introduce a probabilistic model based on distribution estimators conditioned on a recurrent neural network that is able to discover temporal dependencies in high-dimensional sequences. Our approach outperforms many traditional models of polyphonic music on a variety of realistic datasets. We show how our musical language model can serve as a symbolic prior to improve the accuracy of polyphonic transcription.

Häusler, Chris, Susemihl, Alex, Nawrot, Martin P, Opper, Manfred

Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) are generative models which can learn useful representations from samples of a dataset in an unsupervised fashion. They have been widely employed as an unsupervised pre-training method in machine learning. RBMs have been modified to model time series in two main ways: The Temporal RBM stacks a number of RBMs laterally and introduces temporal dependencies between the hidden layer units; The Conditional RBM, on the other hand, considers past samples of the dataset as a conditional bias and learns a representation which takes these into account. Here we propose a new training method for both the TRBM and the CRBM, which enforces the dynamic structure of temporal datasets. We do so by treating the temporal models as denoising autoencoders, considering past frames of the dataset as corrupted versions of the present frame and minimizing the reconstruction error of the present data by the model. We call this approach Temporal Autoencoding. This leads to a significant improvement in the performance of both models in a filling-in-frames task across a number of datasets. The error reduction for motion capture data is 56\% for the CRBM and 80\% for the TRBM. Taking the posterior mean prediction instead of single samples further improves the model's estimates, decreasing the error by as much as 91\% for the CRBM on motion capture data. We also trained the model to perform forecasting on a large number of datasets and have found TA pretraining to consistently improve the performance of the forecasts. Furthermore, by looking at the prediction error across time, we can see that this improvement reflects a better representation of the dynamics of the data as opposed to a bias towards reconstructing the observed data on a short time scale.

Lyakhova, Ya. S., Polyakov, E. A., Rubtsov, A. N.

We propose a novel quantum model for the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), in which the visible units remain classical whereas the hidden units are quantized as noninteracting fermions. The free motion of the fermions is parametrically coupled to the classical signal of the visible units. This model possesses a quantum behaviour such as coherences between the hidden units. Numerical experiments show that this fact makes it more powerful than the classical RBM with the same number of hidden units. At the same time, a significant advantage of the proposed model over the other approaches to the Quantum Boltzmann Machine (QBM) is that it is exactly solvable and efficiently trainable on a classical computer: there is a closed expression for the log-likelihood gradient with respect to its parameters. This fact makes it interesting not only as a model of a hypothetical quantum simulator, but also as a quantum-inspired classical machine-learning algorithm.