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Variable selection for clustering with Gaussian mixture models: state of the art Machine Learning

The mixture models have become widely used in clustering, given its probabilistic framework in which its based, however, for modern databases that are characterized by their large size, these models behave disappointingly in setting out the model, making essential the selection of relevant variables for this type of clustering. After recalling the basics of clustering based on a model, this article will examine the variable selection methods for model-based clustering, as well as presenting opportunities for improvement of these methods.

Unobserved classes and extra variables in high-dimensional discriminant analysis Machine Learning

In supervised classification problems, the test set may contain data points belonging to classes not observed in the learning phase. Moreover, the same units in the test data may be measured on a set of additional variables recorded at a subsequent stage with respect to when the learning sample was collected. In this situation, the classifier built in the learning phase needs to adapt to handle potential unknown classes and the extra dimensions. We introduce a model-based discriminant approach, Dimension-Adaptive Mixture Discriminant Analysis (D-AMDA), which can detect unobserved classes and adapt to the increasing dimensionality. Model estimation is carried out via a full inductive approach based on an EM algorithm. The method is then embedded in a more general framework for adaptive variable selection and classification suitable for data of large dimensions. A simulation study and an artificial experiment related to classification of adulterated honey samples are used to validate the ability of the proposed framework to deal with complex situations.

Dimension reduction for model-based clustering Machine Learning

We introduce a dimension reduction method for visualizing the clustering structure obtained from a finite mixture of Gaussian densities. Information on the dimension reduction subspace is obtained from the variation on group means and, depending on the estimated mixture model, on the variation on group covariances. The proposed method aims at reducing the dimensionality by identifying a set of linear combinations, ordered by importance as quantified by the associated eigenvalues, of the original features which capture most of the cluster structure contained in the data. Observations may then be projected onto such a reduced subspace, thus providing summary plots which help to visualize the clustering structure. These plots can be particularly appealing in the case of high-dimensional data and noisy structure. The new constructed variables capture most of the clustering information available in the data, and they can be further reduced to improve clustering performance. We illustrate the approach on both simulated and real data sets.

Multivariate response and parsimony for Gaussian cluster-weighted models Machine Learning

A family of parsimonious Gaussian cluster-weighted models is presented. This family concerns a multivariate extension to cluster-weighted modelling that can account for correlations between multivariate responses. Parsimony is attained by constraining parts of an eigen-decomposition imposed on the component covariance matrices. A sufficient condition for identifiability is provided and an expectation-maximization algorithm is presented for parameter estimation. Model performance is investigated on both synthetic and classical real data sets and compared with some popular approaches. Finally, accounting for linear dependencies in the presence of a linear regression structure is shown to offer better performance, vis-\`{a}-vis clustering, over existing methodologies.

A Mixture of Generalized Hyperbolic Factor Analyzers Machine Learning

Model-based clustering imposes a finite mixture modelling structure on data for clustering. Finite mixture models assume that the population is a convex combination of a finite number of densities, the distribution within each population is a basic assumption of each particular model. Among all distributions that have been tried, the generalized hyperbolic distribution has the advantage that is a generalization of several other methods, such as the Gaussian distribution, the skew t-distribution, etc. With specific parameters, it can represent either a symmetric or a skewed distribution. While its inherent flexibility is an advantage in many ways, it means the estimation of more parameters than its special and limiting cases. The aim of this work is to propose a mixture of generalized hyperbolic factor analyzers to introduce parsimony and extend the method to high dimensional data. This work can be seen as an extension of the mixture of factor analyzers model to generalized hyperbolic mixtures. The performance of our generalized hyperbolic factor analyzers is illustrated on real data, where it performs favourably compared to its Gaussian analogue.