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Exploiting the potential of deep reinforcement learning for classification tasks in high-dimensional and unstructured data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper presents a framework for efficiently learning feature selection policies which use less features to reach a high classification precision on large unstructured data. It uses a Deep Convolutional Autoencoder (DCAE) for learning compact feature spaces, in combination with recently-proposed Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms as Double DQN and Retrace.


Attentive Max Feature Map for Acoustic Scene Classification with Joint Learning considering the Abstraction of Classes

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The attention mechanism has been widely adopted in acoustic scene classification. However, we find that during the process of attention exclusively emphasizing information, it tends to excessively discard information although improving the performance. We propose a mechanism referred to as the attentive max feature map which combines two effective techniques, attention and max feature map, to further elaborate the attention mechanism and mitigate the abovementioned phenomenon. Furthermore, we explore various joint learning methods that utilize additional labels originally generated for subtask B (3-classes) on top of existing labels for subtask A (10-classes) of the DCASE2020 challenge. We expect that using two kinds of labels simultaneously would be helpful because the labels of the two subtasks differ in their degree of abstraction. Applying two proposed techniques, our proposed system achieves state-of-the-art performance among single systems on subtask A. In addition, because the model has a complexity comparable to subtask B's requirement, it shows the possibility of developing a system that fulfills the requirements of both subtasks; generalization on multiple devices and low-complexity.


Self-supervised on Graphs: Contrastive, Generative,or Predictive

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep learning on graphs has recently achieved remarkable success on a variety of tasks while such success relies heavily on the massive and carefully labeled data. However, precise annotations are generally very expensive and time-consuming. To address this problem, self-supervised learning (SSL) is emerging as a new paradigm for extracting informative knowledge through well-designed pretext tasks without relying on manual labels. In this survey, we extend the concept of SSL, which first emerged in the fields of computer vision and natural language processing, to present a timely and comprehensive review of the existing SSL techniques for graph data. Specifically, we divide existing graph SSL methods into three categories: contrastive, generative, and predictive. More importantly, unlike many other surveys that only provide a high-level description of published research, we present an additional mathematical summary of the existing works in a unified framework. Furthermore, to facilitate methodological development and empirical comparisons, we also summarize the commonly used datasets, evaluation metrics, downstream tasks, and open-source implementations of various algorithms. Finally, we discuss the technical challenges and potential future directions for improving graph self-supervised learning.


Active Discriminative Text Representation Learning

AAAI Conferences

We propose a new active learning (AL) method for text classification with convolutional neural networks (CNNs). In AL, one selects the instances to be manually labeled with the aim of maximizing model performance with minimal effort. Neural models capitalize on word embeddings as representations (features), tuning these to the task at hand. We argue that AL strategies for multi-layered neural models should focus on selecting instances that most affect the embedding space (i.e., induce discriminative word representations). This is in contrast to traditional AL approaches (e.g., entropy-based uncertainty sampling), which specify higher level objectives. We propose a simple approach for sentence classification that selects instances containing words whose embeddings are likely to be updated with the greatest magnitude, thereby rapidly learning discriminative, task-specific embeddings. We extend this approach to document classification by jointly considering: (1) the expected changes to the constituent word representations; and (2) the model’s current overall uncertainty regarding the instance. The relative emphasis placed on these criteria is governed by a stochastic process that favors selecting instances likely to improve representations at the outset of learning, and then shifts toward general uncertainty sampling as AL progresses. Empirical results show that our method outperforms baseline AL approaches on both sentence and document classification tasks. We also show that, as expected, the method quickly learns discriminative word embeddings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work on AL addressing neural models for text classification.


Variational Autoencoders for Learning Latent Representations of Speech Emotion: A Preliminary Study

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Learning the latent representation of data in unsupervised fashion is a very interesting process that provides relevant features for enhancing the performance of a classifier. For speech emotion recognition tasks, generating effective features is crucial. Currently, handcrafted features are mostly used for speech emotion recognition, however, features learned automatically using deep learning have shown strong success in many problems, especially in image processing. In particular, deep generative models such as Variational Autoencoders (VAEs) have gained enormous success for generating features for natural images. Inspired by this, we propose VAEs for deriving the latent representation of speech signals and use this representation to classify emotions. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to propose VAEs for speech emotion classification. Evaluations on the IEMOCAP dataset demonstrate that features learned by VAEs can produce state-of-the-art results for speech emotion classification.