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Finding online neural update rules by learning to remember

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We investigate learning of the online local update rules for neural activations (bodies) and weights (synapses) from scratch. We represent the states of each weight and activation by small vectors, and parameterize their updates using (meta-) neural networks. Different neuron types are represented by different embedding vectors which allows the same two functions to be used for all neurons. Instead of training directly for the objective using evolution or long term back-propagation, as is commonly done in similar systems, we motivate and study a different objective: That of remembering past snippets of experience. We explain how this objective relates to standard back-propagation training and other forms of learning. We train for this objective using short term back-propagation and analyze the performance as a function of both the different network types and the difficulty of the problem. We find that this analysis gives interesting insights onto what constitutes a learning rule. We also discuss how such system could form a natural substrate for addressing topics such as episodic memories, meta-learning and auxiliary objectives.


Sim-to-Real Transfer with Incremental Environment Complexity for Reinforcement Learning of Depth-Based Robot Navigation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Transferring learning-based models to the real world remains one of the hardest problems in model-free control theory. Due to the cost of data collection on a real robot and the limited sample efficiency of Deep Reinforcement Learning algorithms, models are usually trained in a simulator which theoretically provides an infinite amount of data. Despite offering unbounded trial and error runs, the reality gap between simulation and the physical world brings little guarantee about the policy behavior in real operation. Depending on the problem, expensive real fine-tuning and/or a complex domain randomization strategy may be required to produce a relevant policy. In this paper, a Soft-Actor Critic (SAC) training strategy using incremental environment complexity is proposed to drastically reduce the need for additional training in the real world. The application addressed is depth-based mapless navigation, where a mobile robot should reach a given waypoint in a cluttered environment with no prior mapping information. Experimental results in simulated and real environments are presented to assess quantitatively the efficiency of the proposed approach, which demonstrated a success rate twice higher than a naive strategy.


Meta-Learning surrogate models for sequential decision making

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Meta-learning methods leverage past experience to learn data-driven inductive biases from related problems, increasing learning efficiency on new tasks. This ability renders them particularly suitable for sequential decision making with limited experience. Within this problem family, we argue for the use of such approaches in the study of model-based approaches to Bayesian Optimisation, contextual bandits and Reinforcement Learning. We approach the problem by learning distributions over functions using Neural Processes (NPs), a recently introduced probabilistic meta-learning method. This allows the treatment of model uncertainty to tackle the exploration/exploitation dilemma. We show that NPs are suitable for sequential decision making on a diverse set of domains, including adversarial task search, recommender systems and model-based reinforcement learning.


Interpreting Active Learning Methods Through Information Losses

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a new way of interpreting active learning methods by analyzing the information `lost' upon sampling a random variable. We use some recent analytical developments of these losses to formally prove that facility location methods reduce these losses under mild assumptions, and to derive a new data dependent bound on information losses that can be used to evaluate other active learning methods. We show that this new bound is extremely tight to experiment, and further show that the bound has a decent predictive power for classification accuracy.


HydaLearn: Highly Dynamic Task Weighting for Multi-task Learning with Auxiliary Tasks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Multi-task learning (MTL) can improve performance on a task by sharing representations with one or more related auxiliary-tasks. Usually, MTL-networks are trained on a composite loss function formed by a constant weighted combination of the separate task losses. In practice, constant loss weights lead to poor results for two reasons: (i) the relevance of the auxiliary tasks can gradually drift throughout the learning process; (ii) for mini-batch based optimisation, the optimal task weights vary significantly from one update to the next depending on mini-batch sample composition. We introduce HydaLearn, an intelligent weighting algorithm that connects main-task gain to the individual task gradients, in order to inform dynamic loss weighting at the mini-batch level, addressing i and ii. Using HydaLearn, we report performance increases on synthetic data, as well as on two supervised learning domains.