Path-Level Network Transformation for Efficient Architecture Search

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We introduce a new function-preserving transformation for efficient neural architecture search. This network transformation allows reusing previously trained networks and existing successful architectures that improves sample efficiency. We aim to address the limitation of current network transformation operations that can only perform layer-level architecture modifications, such as adding (pruning) filters or inserting (removing) a layer, which fails to change the topology of connection paths. Our proposed path-level transformation operations enable the meta-controller to modify the path topology of the given network while keeping the merits of reusing weights, and thus allow efficiently designing effective structures with complex path topologies like Inception models. We further propose a bidirectional tree-structured reinforcement learning meta-controller to explore a simple yet highly expressive tree-structured architecture space that can be viewed as a generalization of multi-branch architectures. We experimented on the image classification datasets with limited computational resources (about 200 GPU-hours), where we observed improved parameter efficiency and better test results (97.70% test accuracy on CIFAR-10 with 14.3M parameters and 74.6% top-1 accuracy on ImageNet in the mobile setting), demonstrating the effectiveness and transferability of our designed architectures.


Probabilistic Neural Architecture Search

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In neural architecture search (NAS), the space of neural network architectures is automatically explored to maximize predictive accuracy for a given task. Despite the success of recent approaches, most existing methods cannot be directly applied to large scale problems because of their prohibitive computational complexity or high memory usage. In this work, we propose a Probabilistic approach to neural ARchitecture SEarCh (PARSEC) that drastically reduces memory requirements while maintaining state-of-the-art computational complexity, making it possible to directly search over more complex architectures and larger datasets. Our approach only requires as much memory as is needed to train a single architecture from our search space. This is due to a memory-efficient sampling procedure wherein we learn a probability distribution over high-performing neural network architectures. Importantly, this framework enables us to transfer the distribution of architectures learnt on smaller problems to larger ones, further reducing the computational cost. We showcase the advantages of our approach in applications to CIFAR-10 and ImageNet, where our approach outperforms methods with double its computational cost and matches the performance of methods with costs that are three orders of magnitude larger.


ProxylessNAS: Direct Neural Architecture Search on Target Task and Hardware

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Neural architecture search (NAS) has a great impact by automatically designing effective neural network architectures. However, the prohibitive computational demand of conventional NAS algorithms (e.g. $10^4$ GPU hours) makes it difficult to \emph{directly} search the architectures on large-scale tasks (e.g. ImageNet). Differentiable NAS can reduce the cost of GPU hours via a continuous representation of network architecture but suffers from the high GPU memory consumption issue (grow linearly w.r.t. candidate set size). As a result, they need to utilize~\emph{proxy} tasks, such as training on a smaller dataset, or learning with only a few blocks, or training just for a few epochs. These architectures optimized on proxy tasks are not guaranteed to be optimal on target task. In this paper, we present \emph{ProxylessNAS} that can \emph{directly} learn the architectures for large-scale target tasks and target hardware platforms. We address the high memory consumption issue of differentiable NAS and reduce the computational cost (GPU hours and GPU memory) to the same level of regular training while still allowing a large candidate set. Experiments on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet demonstrate the effectiveness of directness and specialization. On CIFAR-10, our model achieves 2.08\% test error with only 5.7M parameters, better than the previous state-of-the-art architecture AmoebaNet-B, while using 6$\times$ fewer parameters. On ImageNet, our model achieves 3.1\% better top-1 accuracy than MobileNetV2, while being 1.2$\times$ faster with measured GPU latency. We also apply ProxylessNAS to specialize neural architectures for hardware with direct hardware metrics (e.g. latency) and provide insights for efficient CNN architecture design.


MemNet: Memory-Efficiency Guided Neural Architecture Search with Augment-Trim learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent studies on automatic neural architectures search have demonstrated significant performance, competitive to or even better than hand-crafted neural architectures. However, most of the existing network architecture tend to use residual, parallel structures and concatenation block between shallow and deep features to construct a large network. This requires large amounts of memory for storing both weights and feature maps. This is challenging for mobile and embedded devices since they may not have enough memory to perform inference with the designed large network model. To close this gap, we propose MemNet, an augment-trim learning-based neural network search framework that optimizes not only performance but also memory requirement. Specifically, it employs memory consumption based ranking score which forces an upper bound on memory consumption for navigating the search process. Experiment results show that, as compared to the state-of-the-art efficient designing methods, MemNet can find an architecture which can achieve competitive accuracy and save an average of 24.17% on the total memory needed.


GP-CNAS: Convolutional Neural Network Architecture Search with Genetic Programming

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are effective at solving difficult problems like visual recognition, speech recognition and natural language processing. However, performance gain comes at the cost of laborious trial-and-error in designing deeper CNN architectures. In this paper, a genetic programming (GP) framework for convolutional neural network architecture search, abbreviated as GP-CNAS, is proposed to automatically search for optimal CNN architectures. GP-CNAS encodes CNNs as trees where leaf nodes (GP terminals) are selected residual blocks and non-leaf nodes (GP functions) specify the block assembling procedure. Our tree-based representation enables easy design and flexible implementation of genetic operators. Specifically, we design a dynamic crossover operator that strikes a balance between exploration and exploitation, which emphasizes CNN complexity at early stage and CNN diversity at later stage. Therefore, the desired CNN architecture with balanced depth and width can be found within limited trials. Moreover, our GP-CNAS framework is highly compatible with other manually-designed and NAS-generated block types as well. Experimental results on the CIFAR-10 dataset show that GP-CNAS is competitive among the state-of-the-art automatic and semi-automatic NAS algorithms.