Collaborating Authors

Spatial Sampling Network for Fast Scene Understanding Artificial Intelligence

We propose a network architecture to perform efficient scene understanding. This work presents three main novelties: the first is an Improved Guided Upsampling Module that can replace in toto the decoder part in common semantic segmentation networks. Our second contribution is the introduction of a new module based on spatial sampling to perform Instance Segmentation. It provides a very fast instance segmentation, needing only thresholding as post-processing step at inference time. Finally, we propose a novel efficient network design that includes the new modules and test it against different datasets for outdoor scene understanding. To our knowledge, our network is one of the themost efficient architectures for scene understanding published to date, furthermore being 8.6% more accurate than the fastest competitor on semantic segmentation and almost five times faster than the most efficient network for instance segmentation.

Recognizing Challenging Handwritten Annotations with Fully Convolutional Networks Machine Learning

This paper introduces a very challenging dataset of historic German documents and evaluates Fully Convolutional Neural Network (FCNN) based methods to locate handwritten annotations of any kind in these documents. The handwritten annotations can appear in form of underlines and text by using various writing instruments, e.g., the use of pencils makes the data more challenging. We train and evaluate various end-to-end semantic segmentation approaches and report the results. The task is to classify the pixels of documents into two classes: background and handwritten annotation. The best model achieves a mean Intersection over Union (IoU) score of 95.6% on the test documents of the presented dataset. We also present a comparison of different strategies used for data augmentation and training on our presented dataset. For evaluation, we use the Layout Analysis Evaluator for the ICDAR 2017 Competition on Layout Analysis for Challenging Medieval Manuscripts.

Material Segmentation of Multi-View Satellite Imagery Artificial Intelligence

Material recognition methods use image context and local cues for pixel-wise classification. In many cases only a single image is available to make a material prediction. Image sequences, routinely acquired in applications such as mutliview stereo, can provide a sampling of the underlying reflectance functions that reveal pixel-level material attributes. We investigate multi-view material segmentation using two datasets generated for building material segmentation and scene material segmentation from the SpaceNet Challenge satellite image dataset. In this paper, we explore the impact of multi-angle reflectance information by introducing the \textit{reflectance residual encoding}, which captures both the multi-angle and multispectral information present in our datasets. The residuals are computed by differencing the sparse-sampled reflectance function with a dictionary of pre-defined dense-sampled reflectance functions. Our proposed reflectance residual features improves material segmentation performance when integrated into pixel-wise and semantic segmentation architectures. At test time, predictions from individual segmentations are combined through softmax fusion and refined by building segment voting. We demonstrate robust and accurate pixelwise segmentation results using the proposed material segmentation pipeline.

ADM for grid CRF loss in CNN segmentation Machine Learning

Variants of gradient descent (GD) dominate CNN loss minimization in computer vision. But, as we show, some powerful loss functions are practically useless only due to their poor optimization by GD. In the context of weakly-supervised CNN segmentation, we present a general ADM approach to regularized losses, which are inspired by well-known MRF/CRF models in "shallow" segmentation. While GD fails on the popular nearest-neighbor Potts loss, ADM splitting with $\alpha$-expansion solver significantly improves optimization of such grid CRF losses yielding state-of-the-art training quality. Denser CRF losses become amenable to basic GD, but they produce lower quality object boundaries in agreement with known noisy performance of dense CRF inference in shallow segmentation.

Learning to Agglomerate Superpixel Hierarchies

Neural Information Processing Systems

An agglomerative clustering algorithm merges the most similar pair of clusters at every iteration. The function that evaluates similarity is traditionally hand- designed, but there has been recent interest in supervised or semisupervised settings in which ground-truth clustered data is available for training. Here we show how to train a similarity function by regarding it as the action-value function of a reinforcement learning problem. We apply this general method to segment images by clustering superpixels, an application that we call Learning to Agglomerate Superpixel Hierarchies (LASH). When applied to a challenging dataset of brain images from serial electron microscopy, LASH dramatically improved segmentation accuracy when clustering supervoxels generated by state of the boundary detection algorithms. The naive strategy of directly training only supervoxel similarities and applying single linkage clustering produced less improvement.