Understanding and predicting latent emotions of users toward online contents, known as social emotion mining, has become increasingly important to both social platforms and businesses alike. Despite recent developments, however, very little attention has been made to the issues of nuance, subjectivity, and bias of social emotions. In this paper, we fill this gap by formulating social emotion mining as a robust label ranking problem, and propose: (1) a robust measure, named as G-mean-rank (GMR), which sets a formal criterion consistent with practical intuition; and (2) a simple yet effective label ranking model, named as ROAR, that is more robust toward unbalanced datasets (which are common). Through comprehensive empirical validation using 4 real datasets and 16 benchmark semi-synthetic label ranking datasets, and a case study, we demonstrate the superiorities of our proposals over 2 popular label ranking measures and 6 competing label ranking algorithms. The datasets and implementations used in the empirical validation are available for access.
We propose to solve a label ranking problem as a structured output regression task. We adopt a least square surrogate loss approach that solves a supervised learning problem in two steps: the regression step in a well-chosen feature space and the pre-image step. We use specific feature maps/embeddings for ranking data, which convert any ranking/permutation into a vector representation. These embeddings are all well-tailored for our approach, either by resulting in consistent estimators, or by solving trivially the pre-image problem which is often the bottleneck in structured prediction. We also propose their natural extension to the case of partial rankings and prove their efficiency on real-world datasets.
Multi-label learning methods assign multiple labels to one object. In practice, in addition to differentiating relevant labels from irrelevant ones, it is often desired to rank the relevant labels for an object, whereas the rankings of irrelevant labels are not important. Such a requirement, however, cannot be met because most existing methods were designed to optimize existing criteria, yet there is no criterion which encodes the aforementioned requirement. In this paper, we present a new criterion, Pro Loss, concerning the prediction on all labels as well as the rankings of only relevant labels. We then propose ProSVM which optimizes Pro Lossefficiently using alternating direction method of multipliers. We further improve its efficiency with an upper approximation that reduces the number of constraints from O ( T , 2 ) to O ( T ), where T is the number of labels. Experiments show that our proposals are not only superior on Pro Loss, but also highly competitive on existing evaluation criteria.
Label ranking is the task of inferring a total order over a predefined set of labels for each given instance. We present a general framework for batch learning of label ranking functions from supervised data. We assume that each instance in the training data is associated with a list of preferences over the label-set, however we do not assume that this list is either complete orconsistent. This enables us to accommodate a variety of ranking problems. In contrast to the general form of the supervision, our goal is to learn a ranking function that induces a total order over the entire set of labels. Special cases of our setting are multilabel categorization and hierarchical classification. We present a general boosting-based learning algorithm for the label ranking problem and prove a lower bound on the progress of each boosting iteration. The applicability of our approach is demonstrated with a set of experiments on a large-scale text corpus.
Extreme Multi-label classification (XML) is an important yet challenging machine learning task, that assigns to each instance its most relevant candidate labels from an extremely large label collection, where the numbers of labels, features and instances could be thousands or millions. XML is more and more on demand in the Internet industries, accompanied with the increasing business scale / scope and data accumulation. The extremely large label collections yield challenges such as computational complexity, inter-label dependency and noisy labeling. Many methods have been proposed to tackle these challenges, based on different mathematical formulations. In this paper, we propose a deep learning XML method, with a word-vector-based self-attention, followed by a ranking-based AutoEncoder architecture. The proposed method has three major advantages: 1) the autoencoder simultaneously considers the inter-label dependencies and the feature-label dependencies, by projecting labels and features onto a common embedding space; 2) the ranking loss not only improves the training efficiency and accuracy but also can be extended to handle noisy labeled data; 3) the efficient attention mechanism improves feature representation by highlighting feature importance. Experimental results on benchmark datasets show the proposed method is competitive to state-of-the-art methods.