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DecisionHoldem: Safe Depth-Limited Solving With Diverse Opponents for Imperfect-Information Games

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

An imperfect-information game is a type of game with asymmetric information. It is more common in life than perfect-information game. Artificial intelligence (AI) in imperfect-information games, such like poker, has made considerable progress and success in recent years. The great success of superhuman poker AI, such as Libratus and Deepstack, attracts researchers to pay attention to poker research. However, the lack of open-source code limits the development of Texas hold'em AI to some extent. This article introduces DecisionHoldem, a high-level AI for heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em with safe depth-limited subgame solving by considering possible ranges of opponent's private hands to reduce the exploitability of the strategy. Experimental results show that DecisionHoldem defeats the strongest openly available agent in heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em poker, namely Slumbot, and a high-level reproduction of Deepstack, viz, Openstack, by more than 730 mbb/h (one-thousandth big blind per round) and 700 mbb/h. Moreover, we release the source codes and tools of DecisionHoldem to promote AI development in imperfect-information games.


Depth-Limited Solving for Imperfect-Information Games

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A fundamental challenge in imperfect-information games is that states do not have well-defined values. As a result, depth-limited search algorithms used in single-agent settings and perfect-information games do not apply. This paper introduces a principled way to conduct depth-limited solving in imperfect-information games by allowing the opponent to choose among a number of strategies for the remainder of the game at the depth limit. Each one of these strategies results in a different set of values for leaf nodes. This forces an agent to be robust to the different strategies an opponent may employ. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by building a master-level heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em poker AI that defeats two prior top agents using only a 4-core CPU and 16 GB of memory. Developing such a powerful agent would have previously required a supercomputer.


Depth-Limited Solving for Imperfect-Information Games

Neural Information Processing Systems

A fundamental challenge in imperfect-information games is that states do not have well-defined values. As a result, depth-limited search algorithms used in single-agent settings and perfect-information games do not apply. This paper introduces a principled way to conduct depth-limited solving in imperfect-information games by allowing the opponent to choose among a number of strategies for the remainder of the game at the depth limit. Each one of these strategies results in a different set of values for leaf nodes. This forces an agent to be robust to the different strategies an opponent may employ. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by building a master-level heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em poker AI that defeats two prior top agents using only a 4-core CPU and 16 GB of memory. Developing such a powerful agent would have previously required a supercomputer.


Depth-Limited Solving for Imperfect-Information Games

Neural Information Processing Systems

A fundamental challenge in imperfect-information games is that states do not have well-defined values. As a result, depth-limited search algorithms used in single-agent settings and perfect-information games do not apply. This paper introduces a principled way to conduct depth-limited solving in imperfect-information games by allowing the opponent to choose among a number of strategies for the remainder of the game at the depth limit. Each one of these strategies results in a different set of values for leaf nodes. This forces an agent to be robust to the different strategies an opponent may employ. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by building a master-level heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em poker AI that defeats two prior top agents using only a 4-core CPU and 16 GB of memory. Developing such a powerful agent would have previously required a supercomputer.


OpenHoldem: An Open Toolkit for Large-Scale Imperfect-Information Game Research

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Owning to the unremitting efforts by a few institutes, significant progress has recently been made in designing superhuman AIs in No-limit Texas Hold'em (NLTH), the primary testbed for large-scale imperfect-information game research. However, it remains challenging for new researchers to study this problem since there are no standard benchmarks for comparing with existing methods, which seriously hinders further developments in this research area. In this work, we present OpenHoldem, an integrated toolkit for large-scale imperfect-information game research using NLTH. OpenHoldem makes three main contributions to this research direction: 1) a standardized evaluation protocol for thoroughly evaluating different NLTH AIs, 2) three publicly available strong baselines for NLTH AI, and 3) an online testing platform with easy-to-use APIs for public NLTH AI evaluation. We have released OpenHoldem at http://holdem.ia.ac.cn/, hoping it facilitates further studies on the unsolved theoretical and computational issues in this area and cultivate crucial research problems like opponent modeling, large-scale equilibrium-finding, and human-computer interactive learning.