Collaborating Authors

Lead Sheet Generation and Arrangement by Conditional Generative Adversarial Network Artificial Intelligence

Research on automatic music generation has seen great progress due to the development of deep neural networks. However, the generation of multi-instrument music of arbitrary genres still remains a challenge. Existing research either works on lead sheets or multi-track piano-rolls found in MIDIs, but both musical notations have their limits. In this work, we propose a new task called lead sheet arrangement to avoid such limits. A new recurrent convolutional generative model for the task is proposed, along with three new symbolic-domain harmonic features to facilitate learning from unpaired lead sheets and MIDIs. Our model can generate lead sheets and their arrangements of eight-bar long. Audio samples of the generated result can be found at

Music Composition with Deep Learning: A Review Artificial Intelligence

Generating a complex work of art such as a musical composition requires exhibiting true creativity that depends on a variety of factors that are related to the hierarchy of musical language. Music generation have been faced with Algorithmic methods and recently, with Deep Learning models that are being used in other fields such as Computer Vision. In this paper we want to put into context the existing relationships between AI-based music composition models and human musical composition and creativity processes. We give an overview of the recent Deep Learning models for music composition and we compare these models to the music composition process from a theoretical point of view. We have tried to answer some of the most relevant open questions for this task by analyzing the ability of current Deep Learning models to generate music with creativity or the similarity between AI and human composition processes, among others.

MuseGAN: Multi-track Sequential Generative Adversarial Networks for Symbolic Music Generation and Accompaniment

AAAI Conferences

Generating music has a few notable differences from generating images and videos. First, music is an art of time, necessitating a temporal model. Second, music is usually composed of multiple instruments/tracks with their own temporal dynamics, but collectively they unfold over time interdependently. Lastly, musical notes are often grouped into chords, arpeggios or melodies in polyphonic music, and thereby introducing a chronological ordering of notes is not naturally suitable. In this paper, we propose three models for symbolic multi-track music generation under the framework of generative adversarial networks (GANs). The three models, which differ in the underlying assumptions and accordingly the network architectures, are referred to as the jamming model, the composer model and the hybrid model. We trained the proposed models on a dataset of over one hundred thousand bars of rock music and applied them to generate piano-rolls of five tracks: bass, drums, guitar, piano and strings. A few intra-track and inter-track objective metrics are also proposed to evaluate the generative results, in addition to a subjective user study. We show that our models can generate coherent music of four bars right from scratch (i.e. without human inputs). We also extend our models to human-AI cooperative music generation: given a specific track composed by human, we can generate four additional tracks to accompany it. All code, the dataset and the rendered audio samples are available at

A-Muze-Net: Music Generation by Composing the Harmony based on the Generated Melody Artificial Intelligence

We present a method for the generation of Midi files of piano music. The method models the right and left hands using two networks, where the left hand is conditioned on the right hand. This way, the melody is generated before the harmony. The Midi is represented in a way that is invariant to the musical scale, and the melody is represented, for the purpose of conditioning the harmony, by the content of each bar, viewed as a chord. Finally, notes are added randomly, based on this chord representation, in order to enrich the generated audio. Our experiments show a significant improvement over the state of the art for training on such datasets, and demonstrate the contribution of each of the novel components.

Continuous Melody Generation via Disentangled Short-Term Representations and Structural Conditions Artificial Intelligence

Automatic music generation is an interdisciplinary research topic that combines computational creativity and semantic analysis of music to create automatic machine improvisations. An important property of such a system is allowing the user to specify conditions and desired properties of the generated music. In this paper we designed a model for composing melodies given a user specified symbolic scenario combined with a previous music context. We add manual labeled vectors denoting external music quality in terms of chord function that provides a low dimensional representation of the harmonic tension and resolution. Our model is capable of generating long melodies by regarding 8-beat note sequences as basic units, and shares consistent rhythm pattern structure with another specific song. The model contains two stages and requires separate training where the first stage adopts a Conditional Variational Autoencoder (C-VAE) to build a bijection between note sequences and their latent representations, and the second stage adopts long short-term memory networks (LSTM) with structural conditions to continue writing future melodies. We further exploit the disentanglement technique via C-VAE to allow melody generation based on pitch contour information separately from conditioning on rhythm patterns. Finally, we evaluate the proposed model using quantitative analysis of rhythm and the subjective listening study. Results show that the music generated by our model tends to have salient repetition structures, rich motives, and stable rhythm patterns. The ability to generate longer and more structural phrases from disentangled representations combined with semantic scenario specification conditions shows a broad application of our model.