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A Study on Dialogue Reward Prediction for Open-Ended Conversational Agents

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The amount of dialogue history to include in a conversational agent is often underestimated and/or set in an empirical and thus possibly naive way. This suggests that principled investigations into optimal context windows are urgently needed given that the amount of dialogue history and corresponding representations can play an important role in the overall performance of a conversational system. This paper studies the amount of history required by conversational agents for reliably predicting dialogue rewards. The task of dialogue reward prediction is chosen for investigating the effects of varying amounts of dialogue history and their impact on system performance. Experimental results using a dataset of 18K human-human dialogues report that lengthy dialogue histories of at least 10 sentences are preferred (25 sentences being the best in our experiments) over short ones, and that lengthy histories are useful for training dialogue reward predictors with strong positive correlations between target dialogue rewards and predicted ones.


EVA: An Open-Domain Chinese Dialogue System with Large-Scale Generative Pre-Training

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Although pre-trained language models have remarkably enhanced the generation ability of dialogue systems, open-domain Chinese dialogue systems are still limited by the dialogue data and the model size compared with English ones. In this paper, we propose EVA, a Chinese dialogue system that contains the largest Chinese pre-trained dialogue model with 2.8B parameters. To build this model, we collect the largest Chinese dialogue dataset named WDC-Dialogue from various public social media. This dataset contains 1.4B context-response pairs and is used as the pre-training corpus of EVA. Extensive experiments on automatic and human evaluation show that EVA outperforms other Chinese pre-trained dialogue models especially in the multi-turn interaction of human-bot conversations.


Few-Shot Generalization Across Dialogue Tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine-learning based dialogue managers are able to learn complex behaviors in order to complete a task, but it is not straightforward to extend their capabilities to new domains. We investigate different policies' ability to handle uncooperative user behavior, and how well expertise in completing one task (such as restaurant reservations) can be reapplied when learning a new one (e.g. booking a hotel). We introduce the Recurrent Embedding Dialogue Policy (REDP), which embeds system actions and dialogue states in the same vector space. REDP contains a memory component and attention mechanism based on a modified Neural Turing Machine, and significantly outperforms a baseline LSTM classifier on this task. We also show that both our architecture and baseline solve the bAbI dialogue task, achieving 100% test accuracy.


Trott

AAAI Conferences

Speakers frequently repair their speech, and listeners must therefore integrate information across ill-formed, often fragmentary inputs. Previous dialogue systems for human-robot interaction (HRI) have addressed certain problems in dialogue repair, but there are many problems that remain. In this paper, we discuss these problems from the perspective of Conversation Analysis, and argue that a more holistic account of dialogue repair will actually aid in the design and implementation of machine dialogue systems.


Policy Activation for Open-Ended Dialogue Management

AAAI Conferences

An important difficulty in developing spoken dialogue systems for robots is the open-ended nature of most interactions. Robotic agents must typically operate in complex, continuously changing environments which are difficult to model and do not provide any clear, predefined goal. Directly capturing this complexity in a single, large dialogue policy is thus inadequate. This paper presents a new approach which tackles the complexity of open-ended interactions by breaking it into a set of small, independent policies, which can be activated and deactivated at runtime by a dedicated mechanism. The approach is currently being implemented in a spoken dialogue system for autonomous robots.