Goto

Collaborating Authors

Precise expressions for random projections: Low-rank approximation and randomized Newton

arXiv.org Machine Learning

It is often desirable to reduce the dimensionality of a large dataset by projecting it onto a low-dimensional subspace. Matrix sketching has emerged as a powerful technique for performing such dimensionality reduction very efficiently. Even though there is an extensive literature on the worst-case performance of sketching, existing guarantees are typically very different from what is observed in practice. We exploit recent developments in the spectral analysis of random matrices to develop novel techniques that provide provably accurate expressions for the expected value of random projection matrices obtained via sketching. These expressions can be used to characterize the performance of dimensionality reduction in a variety of common machine learning tasks, ranging from low-rank approximation to iterative stochastic optimization. Our results apply to several popular sketching methods, including Gaussian and Rademacher sketches, and they enable precise analysis of these methods in terms of spectral properties of the data. Empirical results show that the expressions we derive reflect the practical performance of these sketching methods, down to lower-order effects and even constant factors.


Newton-LESS: Sparsification without Trade-offs for the Sketched Newton Update

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In second-order optimization, a potential bottleneck can be computing the Hessian matrix of the optimized function at every iteration. Randomized sketching has emerged as a powerful technique for constructing estimates of the Hessian which can be used to perform approximate Newton steps. This involves multiplication by a random sketching matrix, which introduces a trade-off between the computational cost of sketching and the convergence rate of the optimization algorithm. A theoretically desirable but practically much too expensive choice is to use a dense Gaussian sketching matrix, which produces unbiased estimates of the exact Newton step and which offers strong problem-independent convergence guarantees. We show that the Gaussian sketching matrix can be drastically sparsified, significantly reducing the computational cost of sketching, without substantially affecting its convergence properties. This approach, called Newton-LESS, is based on a recently introduced sketching technique: LEverage Score Sparsified (LESS) embeddings. We prove that Newton-LESS enjoys nearly the same problem-independent local convergence rate as Gaussian embeddings, not just up to constant factors but even down to lower order terms, for a large class of optimization tasks. In particular, this leads to a new state-of-the-art convergence result for an iterative least squares solver. Finally, we extend LESS embeddings to include uniformly sparsified random sign matrices which can be implemented efficiently and which perform well in numerical experiments.


Distributed Averaging Methods for Randomized Second Order Optimization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider distributed optimization problems where forming the Hessian is computationally challenging and communication is a significant bottleneck. We develop unbiased parameter averaging methods for randomized second order optimization that employ sampling and sketching of the Hessian. Existing works do not take the bias of the estimators into consideration, which limits their application to massively parallel computation. We provide closed-form formulas for regularization parameters and step sizes that provably minimize the bias for sketched Newton directions. We also extend the framework of second order averaging methods to introduce an unbiased distributed optimization framework for heterogeneous computing systems with varying worker resources. Additionally, we demonstrate the implications of our theoretical findings via large scale experiments performed on a serverless computing platform.


Sparse sketches with small inversion bias

arXiv.org Machine Learning

For a tall $n\times d$ matrix $A$ and a random $m\times n$ sketching matrix $S$, the sketched estimate of the inverse covariance matrix $(A^\top A)^{-1}$ is typically biased: $E[(\tilde A^\top\tilde A)^{-1}]\ne(A^\top A)^{-1}$, where $\tilde A=SA$. This phenomenon, which we call inversion bias, arises, e.g., in statistics and distributed optimization, when averaging multiple independently constructed estimates of quantities that depend on the inverse covariance. We develop a framework for analyzing inversion bias, based on our proposed concept of an $(\epsilon,\delta)$-unbiased estimator for random matrices. We show that when the sketching matrix $S$ is dense and has i.i.d. sub-gaussian entries, then after simple rescaling, the estimator $(\frac m{m-d}\tilde A^\top\tilde A)^{-1}$ is $(\epsilon,\delta)$-unbiased for $(A^\top A)^{-1}$ with a sketch of size $m=O(d+\sqrt d/\epsilon)$. This implies that for $m=O(d)$, the inversion bias of this estimator is $O(1/\sqrt d)$, which is much smaller than the $\Theta(1)$ approximation error obtained as a consequence of the subspace embedding guarantee for sub-gaussian sketches. We then propose a new sketching technique, called LEverage Score Sparsified (LESS) embeddings, which uses ideas from both data-oblivious sparse embeddings as well as data-aware leverage-based row sampling methods, to get $\epsilon$ inversion bias for sketch size $m=O(d\log d+\sqrt d/\epsilon)$ in time $O(\text{nnz}(A)\log n+md^2)$, where nnz is the number of non-zeros. The key techniques enabling our analysis include an extension of a classical inequality of Bai and Silverstein for random quadratic forms, which we call the Restricted Bai-Silverstein inequality; and anti-concentration of the Binomial distribution via the Paley-Zygmund inequality, which we use to prove a lower bound showing that leverage score sampling sketches generally do not achieve small inversion bias.


Distributed estimation of the inverse Hessian by determinantal averaging

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In distributed optimization and distributed numerical linear algebra, we often encounter an inversion bias: if we want to compute a quantity that depends on the inverse of a sum of distributed matrices, then the sum of the inverses does not equal the inverse of the sum. An example of this occurs in distributed Newton's method, where we wish to compute (or implicitly work with) the inverse Hessian multiplied by the gradient. In this case, locally computed estimates are biased, and so taking a uniform average will not recover the correct solution. To address this, we propose determinantal averaging, a new approach for correcting the inversion bias. This approach involves reweighting the local estimates of the Newton's step proportionally to the determinant of the local Hessian estimate, and then averaging them together to obtain an improved global estimate. This method provides the first known distributed Newton step that is asymptotically consistent, i.e., it recovers the exact step in the limit as the number of distributed partitions grows to infinity. To show this, we develop new expectation identities and moment bounds for the determinant and adjugate of a random matrix. Determinantal averaging can be applied not only to Newton's method, but to computing any quantity that is a linear tranformation of a matrix inverse, e.g., taking a trace of the inverse covariance matrix, which is used in data uncertainty quantification.