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Deep Segment Attentive Embedding for Duration Robust Speaker Verification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

LSTM-based speaker verification usually uses a fixed-length local segment randomly truncated from an utterance to learn the utterance-level speaker embedding, while using the average embedding of all segments of a test utterance to verify the speaker, which results in a critical mismatch between testing and training. This mismatch degrades the performance of speaker verification, especially when the durations of training and testing utterances are very different. To alleviate this issue, we propose the deep segment attentive embedding method to learn the unified speaker embeddings for utterances of variable duration. Each utterance is segmented by a sliding window and LSTM is used to extract the embedding of each segment. Instead of only using one local segment, we use the whole utterance to learn the utterance-level embedding by applying an attentive pooling to the embeddings of all segments. Moreover, the similarity loss of segment-level embeddings is introduced to guide the segment attention to focus on the segments with more speaker discriminations, and jointly optimized with the similarity loss of utterance-level embeddings. Systematic experiments on Tongdun and VoxCeleb show that the proposed method significantly improves robustness of duration variant and achieves the relative Equal Error Rate reduction of 50% and 11.54% , respectively.


Robust End to End Speaker Verification Using EEG

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper we demonstrate that performance of a speaker verification system can be improved by concatenating electroencephalography (EEG) signal features with speech signal. We use state of art end to end deep learning model for performing speaker verification and we demonstrate our results for noisy speech. Our results indicate that EEG signals can improve the robustness of speaker verification systems.


Semi-supervised voice conversion with amortized variational inference

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this work we introduce a semi-supervised approach to the voice conversion problem, in which speech from a source speaker is converted into speech of a target speaker. The proposed method makes use of both parallel and non-parallel utterances from the source and target simultaneously during training. This approach can be used to extend existing parallel data voice conversion systems such that they can be trained with semi-supervision. We show that incorporating semi-supervision improves the voice conversion performance compared to fully supervised training when the number of parallel utterances is limited as in many practical applications. Additionally, we find that increasing the number non-parallel utterances used in training continues to improve performance when the amount of parallel training data is held constant.


Speech Emotion Recognition Using Multi-hop Attention Mechanism

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we are interested in exploiting textual and acoustic data of an utterance for the speech emotion classification task. The baseline approach models the information from audio and text independently using two deep neural networks (DNNs). The outputs from both the DNNs are then fused for classification. As opposed to using knowledge from both the modalities separately, we propose a framework to exploit acoustic information in tandem with lexical data. The proposed framework uses two bi-directional long short-term memory (BLSTM) for obtaining hidden representations of the utterance. Furthermore, we propose an attention mechanism, referred to as the multi-hop, which is trained to automatically infer the correlation between the modalities. The multi-hop attention first computes the relevant segments of the textual data corresponding to the audio signal. The relevant textual data is then applied to attend parts of the audio signal. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, experiments are performed in the IEMOCAP dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed technique outperforms the state-of-the-art system by 6.5% relative improvement in terms of weighted accuracy.


Training Augmentation with Adversarial Examples for Robust Speech Recognition

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper explores the use of adversarial examples in training speech recognition systems to increase robustness of deep neural network acoustic models. During training, the fast gradient sign method is used to generate adversarial examples augmenting the original training data. Different from conventional data augmentation based on data transformations, the examples are dynamically generated based on current acoustic model parameters. We assess the impact of adversarial data augmentation in experiments on the Aurora-4 and CHiME-4 single-channel tasks, showing improved robustness against noise and channel variation. Further improvement is obtained when combining adversarial examples with teacher/student training, leading to a 23% relative word error rate reduction on Aurora-4.