In recent years, semi-supervised learning (SSL) has shown tremendous success in leveraging unlabeled data to improve the performance of deep learning models, which significantly reduces the demand for large amounts of labeled data. Many SSL techniques have been proposed and have shown promising performance on famous datasets such as ImageNet and CIFAR-10. However, some exiting techniques (especially data augmentation based) are not suitable for industrial applications empirically. Therefore, this work proposes the pseudo-representation labeling, a simple and flexible framework that utilizes pseudo-labeling techniques to iteratively label a small amount of unlabeled data and use them as training data. In addition, our framework is integrated with self-supervised representation learning such that the classifier gains benefits from representation learning of both labeled and unlabeled data. This framework can be implemented without being limited at the specific model structure, but a general technique to improve the existing model. Compared with the existing approaches, the pseudo-representation labeling is more intuitive and can effectively solve practical problems in the real world. Empirically, it outperforms the current state-of-the-art semi-supervised learning methods in industrial types of classification problems such as the WM-811K wafer map and the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia dataset.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) provides an effective means of leveraging unlabeled data to improve a model's performance. In this paper, we demonstrate the power of a simple combination of two common SSL methods: consistency regularization and pseudo-labeling. Our algorithm, FixMatch, first generates pseudo-labels using the model's predictions on weakly-augmented unlabeled images. For a given image, the pseudo-label is only retained if the model produces a high-confidence prediction. The model is then trained to predict the pseudo-label when fed a strongly-augmented version of the same image. Despite its simplicity, we show that FixMatch achieves state-of-the-art performance across a variety of standard semi-supervised learning benchmarks, including 94.93% accuracy on CIFAR-10 with 250 labels and 88.61% accuracy with 40 -- just 4 labels per class. Since FixMatch bears many similarities to existing SSL methods that achieve worse performance, we carry out an extensive ablation study to tease apart the experimental factors that are most important to FixMatch's success. We make our code available at https://github.com/google-research/fixmatch.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) provides a powerful framework for leveraging unlabeled data when labels are limited or expensive to obtain. SSL algorithms based on deep neural networks have recently proven successful on standard benchmark tasks. However, we argue that these benchmarks fail to address many issues that these algorithms would face in real-world applications. After creating a unified reimplementation of various widely-used SSL techniques, we test them in a suite of experiments designed to address these issues. We find that the performance of simple baselines which do not use unlabeled data is often underreported, that SSL methods differ in sensitivity to the amount of labeled and unlabeled data, and that performance can degrade substantially when the unlabeled dataset contains out-of-class examples. To help guide SSL research towards real-world applicability, we make our unified reimplemention and evaluation platform publicly available.
Few-shot classification (FSC) is challenging due to the scarcity of labeled training data (e.g. only one labeled data point per class). Meta-learning has shown to achieve promising results by learning to initialize a classification model for FSC. In this paper we propose a novel semi-supervised meta-learning method called learning to self-train (LST) that leverages unlabeled data and specifically meta-learns how to cherry-pick and label such unsupervised data to further improve performance. To this end, we train the LST model through a large number of semi-supervised few-shot tasks. On each task, we train a few-shot model to predict pseudo labels for unlabeled data, and then iterate the self-training steps on labeled and pseudo-labeled data with each step followed by fine-tuning. We additionally learn a soft weighting network (SWN) to optimize the self-training weights of pseudo labels so that better ones can contribute more to gradient descent optimization. We evaluate our LST method on two ImageNet benchmarks for semi-supervised few-shot classification and achieve large improvements over the state-of-the-art.
We introduce Negative Sampling in Semi-Supervised Learning (NS3L), a simple, fast, easy to tune algorithm for semi-supervised learning (SSL). NS3L is motivated by the success of negative sampling/contrastive estimation. We demonstrate that adding the NS3L loss to state-of-the-art SSL algorithms, such as the Virtual Adversarial Training (VAT), significantly improves upon vanilla VAT and its variant, VAT with Entropy Minimization. By adding the NS3L loss to MixMatch, the current state-of-the-art approach on semi-supervised tasks, we observe significant improvements over vanilla MixMatch. We conduct extensive experiments on the CIFAR10, CIFAR100, SVHN and STL10 benchmark datasets.