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RealMix: Towards Realistic Semi-Supervised Deep Learning Algorithms

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) algorithms have shown great potential in training regimes when access to labeled data is scarce but access to unlabeled data is plentiful. However, our experiments illustrate several shortcomings that prior SSL algorithms suffer from. In particular, poor performance when unlabeled and labeled data distributions differ. To address these observations, we develop RealMix, which achieves state-of-the-art results on standard benchmark datasets across different labeled and unlabeled set sizes while overcoming the aforementioned challenges. Notably, RealMix achieves an error rate of 9.79% on CIFAR10 with 250 labels and is the only SSL method tested able to surpass baseline performance when there is significant mismatch in the labeled and unlabeled data distributions. RealMix demonstrates how SSL can be used in real world situations with limited access to both data and compute and guides further research in SSL with practical applicability in mind.


Semi-Supervised Learning by Augmented Distribution Alignment

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this work, we propose a simple yet effective semi-supervised learning approach called Augmented Distribution Alignment. We reveal that an essential sampling bias exists in semi-supervised learning due to the limited amount of labeled samples, which often leads to a considerable empirical distribution mismatch between labeled data and unlabeled data. To this end, we propose to align the empirical distributions of labeled and unlabeled data to alleviate the bias. On one hand, we adopt an adversarial training strategy to minimize the distribution distance between labeled and unlabeled data as inspired by domain adaptation works. On the other hand, to deal with the small sample size issue of labeled data, we also propose a simple interpolation strategy to generate pseudo training samples. Those two strategies can be easily implemented into existing deep neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach on the benchmark SVHN and CIFAR10 datasets, on which we achieve new state-of-the-art error rates of $3.54\%$ and $10.09\%$, respectively. Our code will be available at \url{https://github.com/qinenergy/adanet}.


Semi-supervised Protein Classification Using Cluster Kernels

Neural Information Processing Systems

A key issue in supervised protein classification is the representation of input sequencesof amino acids. Recent work using string kernels for protein datahas achieved state-of-the-art classification performance. However, suchrepresentations are based only on labeled data -- examples with known 3D structures, organized into structural classes -- while in practice, unlabeled data is far more plentiful.


Rademacher Complexity Bounds for a Penalized Multiclass Semi-Supervised Algorithm

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose Rademacher complexity bounds for multiclass classifiers trained with a two-step semi-supervised model. In the first step, the algorithm partitions the partially labeled data and then identifies dense clusters containing $\kappa$ predominant classes using the labeled training examples such that the proportion of their non-predominant classes is below a fixed threshold. In the second step, a classifier is trained by minimizing a margin empirical loss over the labeled training set and a penalization term measuring the disability of the learner to predict the $\kappa$ predominant classes of the identified clusters. The resulting data-dependent generalization error bound involves the margin distribution of the classifier, the stability of the clustering technique used in the first step and Rademacher complexity terms corresponding to partially labeled training data. Our theoretical result exhibit convergence rates extending those proposed in the literature for the binary case, and experimental results on different multiclass classification problems show empirical evidence that supports the theory.


RSSL: Semi-supervised Learning in R

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we introduce a package for semi-supervised learning research in the R programming language called RSSL. We cover the purpose of the package, the methods it includes and comment on their use and implementation. We then show, using several code examples, how the package can be used to replicate well-known results from the semi-supervised learning literature.