Devices comprising the Internet of Things, such as sensors and small cameras, usually have small memories and limited computational power. The proliferation of such resource-constrained devices in recent years has led to the generation of large quantities of data. These data-producing devices are appealing targets for machine learning applications but struggle to run machine learning algorithms due to their limited computing capability. They typically offload input data to external computing systems (such as cloud servers) for further processing. The results of the machine learning computations are communicated back to the resource-scarce devices, but this worsens latency, leads to increased communication costs, and adds to privacy concerns. Therefore, efforts have been made to place additional computing devices at the edge of the network, i.e close to the IoT devices where the data is generated. Deploying machine learning systems on such edge devices alleviates the above issues by allowing computations to be performed close to the data sources. This survey describes major research efforts where machine learning has been deployed at the edge of computer networks.
Peltonen, Ella, Bennis, Mehdi, Capobianco, Michele, Debbah, Merouane, Ding, Aaron, Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe, Jurmu, Marko, Karvonen, Teemu, Kelanti, Markus, Kliks, Adrian, Leppänen, Teemu, Lovén, Lauri, Mikkonen, Tommi, Rao, Ashwin, Samarakoon, Sumudu, Seppänen, Kari, Sroka, Paweł, Tarkoma, Sasu, Yang, Tingting
In this white paper we provide a vision for 6G Edge Intelligence. Moving towards 5G and beyond the future 6G networks, intelligent solutions utilizing data-driven machine learning and artificial intelligence become crucial for several real-world applications including but not limited to, more efficient manufacturing, novel personal smart device environments and experiences, urban computing and autonomous traffic settings. We present edge computing along with other 6G enablers as a key component to establish the future 2030 intelligent Internet technologies as shown in this series of 6G White Papers. In this white paper, we focus in the domains of edge computing infrastructure and platforms, data and edge network management, software development for edge, and real-time and distributed training of ML/AI algorithms, along with security, privacy, pricing, and end-user aspects. We discuss the key enablers and challenges and identify the key research questions for the development of the Intelligent Edge services. As a main outcome of this white paper, we envision a transition from Internet of Things to Intelligent Internet of Intelligent Things and provide a roadmap for development of 6G Intelligent Edge.
Edge intelligence refers to a set of connected systems and devices for data collection, caching, processing, and analysis in locations close to where data is captured based on artificial intelligence. The aim of edge intelligence is to enhance the quality and speed of data processing and protect the privacy and security of the data. Although recently emerged, spanning the period from 2011 to now, this field of research has shown explosive growth over the past five years. In this paper, we present a thorough and comprehensive survey on the literature surrounding edge intelligence. We first identify four fundamental components of edge intelligence, namely edge caching, edge training, edge inference, and edge offloading, based on theoretical and practical results pertaining to proposed and deployed systems. We then aim for a systematic classification of the state of the solutions by examining research results and observations for each of the four components and present a taxonomy that includes practical problems, adopted techniques, and application goals. For each category, we elaborate, compare and analyse the literature from the perspectives of adopted techniques, objectives, performance, advantages and drawbacks, etc. This survey article provides a comprehensive introduction to edge intelligence and its application areas. In addition, we summarise the development of the emerging research field and the current state-of-the-art and discuss the important open issues and possible theoretical and technical solutions.
With the breakthroughs in deep learning, the recent years have witnessed a booming of artificial intelligence (AI) applications and services, spanning from personal assistant to recommendation systems to video/audio surveillance. More recently, with the proliferation of mobile computing and Internet-of-Things (IoT), billions of mobile and IoT devices are connected to the Internet, generating zillions Bytes of data at the network edge. Driving by this trend, there is an urgent need to push the AI frontiers to the network edge so as to fully unleash the potential of the edge big data. To meet this demand, edge computing, an emerging paradigm that pushes computing tasks and services from the network core to the network edge, has been widely recognized as a promising solution. The resulted new inter-discipline, edge AI or edge intelligence, is beginning to receive a tremendous amount of interest. However, research on edge intelligence is still in its infancy stage, and a dedicated venue for exchanging the recent advances of edge intelligence is highly desired by both the computer system and artificial intelligence communities. To this end, we conduct a comprehensive survey of the recent research efforts on edge intelligence. Specifically, we first review the background and motivation for artificial intelligence running at the network edge. We then provide an overview of the overarching architectures, frameworks and emerging key technologies for deep learning model towards training/inference at the network edge. Finally, we discuss future research opportunities on edge intelligence. We believe that this survey will elicit escalating attentions, stimulate fruitful discussions and inspire further research ideas on edge intelligence.
The potential held by the gargantuan volumes of data being generated across networks worldwide has been truly unlocked by machine learning techniques and more recently Deep Learning. The advantages offered by the latter have seen it rapidly becoming a framework of choice for various applications. However, the centralization of computational resources and the need for data aggregation have long been limiting factors in the democratization of Deep Learning applications. Edge Computing is an emerging paradigm that aims to utilize the hitherto untapped processing resources available at the network periphery. Edge Intelligence (EI) has quickly emerged as a powerful alternative to enable learning using the concepts of Edge Computing. Deep Learning-based Edge Intelligence or Deep Edge Intelligence (DEI) lies in this rapidly evolving domain. In this article, we provide an overview of the major constraints in operationalizing DEI. The major research avenues in DEI have been consolidated under Federated Learning, Distributed Computation, Compression Schemes and Conditional Computation. We also present some of the prevalent challenges and highlight prospective research avenues.