Real-time On-Demand Crowd-powered Entity Extraction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Output-agreement mechanisms such as ESP Game have been widely used in human computation to obtain reliable human-generated labels. In this paper, we argue that a "time-limited" output-agreement mechanism can be used to create a fast and robust crowd-powered component in interactive systems, particularly dialogue systems, to extract key information from user utterances on the fly. Our experiments on Amazon Mechanical Turk using the Airline Travel Information System (ATIS) dataset showed that the proposed approach achieves high-quality results with an average response time shorter than 9 seconds.


Self-critical Sequence Training for Image Captioning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recently it has been shown that policy-gradient methods for reinforcement learning can be utilized to train deep end-to-end systems directly on non-differentiable metrics for the task at hand. In this paper we consider the problem of optimizing image captioning systems using reinforcement learning, and show that by carefully optimizing our systems using the test metrics of the MSCOCO task, significant gains in performance can be realized. Our systems are built using a new optimization approach that we call self-critical sequence training (SCST). SCST is a form of the popular REINFORCE algorithm that, rather than estimating a "baseline" to normalize the rewards and reduce variance, utilizes the output of its own test-time inference algorithm to normalize the rewards it experiences. Using this approach, estimating the reward signal (as actor-critic methods must do) and estimating normalization (as REINFORCE algorithms typically do) is avoided, while at the same time harmonizing the model with respect to its test-time inference procedure. Empirically we find that directly optimizing the CIDEr metric with SCST and greedy decoding at test-time is highly effective. Our results on the MSCOCO evaluation sever establish a new state-of-the-art on the task, improving the best result in terms of CIDEr from 104.9 to 114.7.


Controlling for Unobserved Confounds in Classification Using Correlational Constraints

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As statistical classifiers become integrated into real-world applications, it is important to consider not only their accuracy but also their robustness to changes in the data distribution. In this paper, we consider the case where there is an unobserved confounding variable $z$ that influences both the features $\mathbf{x}$ and the class variable $y$. When the influence of $z$ changes from training to testing data, we find that the classifier accuracy can degrade rapidly. In our approach, we assume that we can predict the value of $z$ at training time with some error. The prediction for $z$ is then fed to Pearl's back-door adjustment to build our model. Because of the attenuation bias caused by measurement error in $z$, standard approaches to controlling for $z$ are ineffective. In response, we propose a method to properly control for the influence of $z$ by first estimating its relationship with the class variable $y$, then updating predictions for $z$ to match that estimated relationship. By adjusting the influence of $z$, we show that we can build a model that exceeds competing baselines on accuracy as well as on robustness over a range of confounding relationships.


Getting Started with Artificial Intelligence Today Digital Marketing Blog

#artificialintelligence

Blog Post:This week, an Econsultancy article examined five ways that artificial intelligence (AI) can help marketers enhance the customer experience, according to its latest "Marketing in the Age of Artificial Intelligence" report. The article explains that by streamlining purchase processes and supply chains, improving recommendations, and enriching the customer experience in related ways, AI can help foster stronger relationships between brands and customers. You may be thinking, "This all sounds well and good, but what does it have to do with me? How am I supposed to leverage AI, right now, to improve my brand's customer relationships?" The article made me think about certain capabilities in Adobe Target Premium that can already help you realise many of these benefits.


Scalable Exact Parent Sets Identification in Bayesian Networks Learning with Apache Spark

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In Machine Learning, the parent set identification problem is to find a set of random variables that best explain selected variable given the data and some predefined scoring function. This problem is a critical component to structure learning of Bayesian networks and Markov blankets discovery, and thus has many practical applications, ranging from fraud detection to clinical decision support. In this paper, we introduce a new distributed memory approach to the exact parent sets assignment problem. To achieve scalability, we derive theoretical bounds to constraint the search space when MDL scoring function is used, and we reorganize the underlying dynamic programming such that the computational density is increased and fine-grain synchronization is eliminated. We then design efficient realization of our approach in the Apache Spark platform. Through experimental results, we demonstrate that the method maintains strong scalability on a 500-core standalone Spark cluster, and it can be used to efficiently process data sets with 70 variables, far beyond the reach of the currently available solutions.