Service supply chain management is to prepare spare parts for failed products under warranty. Their goal is to reach agreed service level at the minimum cost. We convert this business problem into a preference based multi-objective optimization problem, where two quality criteria must be simultaneously optimized. One criterion is accuracy of demand forecast and the other is service level. Here we propose a general framework supporting solving preference-based multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs) by multi-gradient descent algorithm (MGDA), which is well suited for training deep neural network. The proposed framework treats agreed service level as a constrained criterion that must be met and generate a Pareto-optimal solution with highest forecasting accuracy. The neural networks used here are two Encoder-Decoder LSTM modes: one is used for pre-training phase to learn distributed representation of former generations' service parts consumption data, and the other is used for supervised learning phase to generate forecast quantities of current generations' service parts. Evaluated under the service parts consumption data in Lenovo Group Ltd, the proposed method clearly outperform baseline methods.
In the power and energy systems area, a progressive increase of literature contributions containing applications of metaheuristic algorithms is occurring. In many cases, these applications are merely aimed at proposing the testing of an existing metaheuristic algorithm on a specific problem, claiming that the proposed method is better than other methods based on weak comparisons. This 'rush to heuristics' does not happen in the evolutionary computation domain, where the rules for setting up rigorous comparisons are stricter, but are typical of the domains of application of the metaheuristics. This paper considers the applications to power and energy systems, and aims at providing a comprehensive view of the main issues concerning the use of metaheuristics for global optimization problems. A set of underlying principles that characterize the metaheuristic algorithms is presented. The customization of metaheuristic algorithms to fit the constraints of specific problems is discussed. Some weaknesses and pitfalls found in literature contributions are identified, and specific guidelines are provided on how to prepare sound contributions on the application of metaheuristic algorithms to specific problems.
Software systems nowadays are complex and difficult to maintain due to continuous changes and bad design choices. To handle the complexity of systems, software products are, in general, decomposed in terms of packages/modules containing classes that are dependent. However, it is challenging to automatically remodularize systems to improve their maintainability. The majority of existing remodularization work mainly satisfy one objective which is improving the structure of packages by optimizing coupling and cohesion. In addition, most of existing studies are limited to only few operation types such as move class and split packages. Many other objectives, such as the design semantics, reducing the number of changes and maximizing the consistency with development change history, are important to improve the quality of the software by remodularizing it. In this paper, we propose a novel many-objective search-based approach using NSGA-III. The process aims at finding the optimal remodularization solutions that improve the structure of packages, minimize the number of changes, preserve semantics coherence, and re-use the history of changes. We evaluate the efficiency of our approach using four different open-source systems and one automotive industry project, provided by our industrial partner, through a quantitative and qualitative study conducted with software engineers.
With modern requirements, there is an increasing tendancy of considering multiple objectives/criteria simultaneously in many Software Engineering (SE) scenarios. Such a multi-objective optimization scenario comes with an important issue --- how to evaluate the outcome of optimization algorithms, which typically is a set of incomparable solutions (i.e., being Pareto non-dominated to each other). This issue can be challenging for the SE community, particularly for practitioners of Search-Based SE (SBSE). On one hand, multiobjective optimization may still be relatively new to SE/SBSE researchers, who may not be able to identify right evaluation methods for their problems. On the other hand, simply following the evaluation methods for general multiobjective optimisation problems may not be appropriate for specific SE problems, especially when the problem nature or decision maker's preferences are explicitly/implicitly available. This has been well echoed in the literature by various inappropriate/inadequate selection and inaccurate/misleading uses of evaluation methods. In this paper, we carry out a critical review of quality evaluation for multiobjective optimization in SBSE. We survey 717 papers published between 2009 and 2019 from 36 venues in 7 repositories, and select 97 prominent studies, through which we identify five important but overlooked issues in the area. We then conduct an in-depth analysis of quality evaluation indicators and general situations in SBSE, which, together with the identified issues, enables us to provide a methodological guidance to selecting and using evaluation methods in different SBSE scenarios.
Search-Based Software Engineering (SBSE) is a promising paradigm that exploits computational search to optimize different processes when engineering complex software systems. Self-adaptive system (SAS) is one category of such complex systems that permits to optimize different functional and non-functional objectives/criteria under changing environment (e.g., requirements and workload), which involves problems that are subject to search. In this regard, over years, there have been a considerable amount of work that investigates SBSE for SASs. In this paper, we provide the first systematic and comprehensive survey exclusively on SBSE for SASs, covering 3,740 papers in 27 venues from 7 repositories, which eventually leads to several key statistics from the most notable 73 primary studies in this particular field of research. Our results, surprisingly, have revealed five disappointed issues that are of utmost importance, but have been overwhelmingly ignored in existing studies. We provide evidences to justify our arguments against the disappointments and highlight six emergent, but currently under-explored opportunities for future work on SBSE for SASs. By mitigating the disappointed issues revealed in this work, together with the highlighted opportunities, we hope to be able to excite a much more significant growth on this particular research direction.