An Online Learning Method for Improving Over-subscription Planning

AAAI Conferences

Despite the recent resurgence of interest in learning methods for planning, most such efforts are still focused exclusively on classical planning problems. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of learning approaches for improving over-subscription planning, a problem that has received significant recent interest. Viewing over-subscription planning as a domain-independent optimization problem, we adapt the STAGE (Boyan and Moore 2000) approach to learn and improve the plan search. The key challenge in our study is how to automate the feature generation process. In our case, we developed and experimented with a relational feature set, based on Taxonomic syntax as well as a propositional feature set, based on ground-facts. The feature generation process and training data generation process are all automatic, making it a completely domain-independent optimization process that takes advantage of online learning. In empirical studies, our proposed approach improved upon the baseline planner for over-subscription planning on many of the benchmark problems.


Neural Educational Recommendation Engine (NERE)

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Quizlet is the most popular online learning tool in the United States, and is used by over 2/3 of high school students, and 1/2 of college students. With more than 95% of Quizlet users reporting improved grades as a result, the platform has become the de-facto tool used in millions of classrooms. In this paper, we explore the task of recommending suitable content for a student to study, given their prior interests, as well as what their peers are studying. We propose a novel approach, i.e. Neural Educational Recommendation Engine (NERE), to recommend educational content by leveraging student behaviors rather than ratings. We have found that this approach better captures social factors that are more aligned with learning. NERE is based on a recurrent neural network that includes collaborative and content-based approaches for recommendation, and takes into account any particular student's speed, mastery, and experience to recommend the appropriate task. We train NERE by jointly learning the user embeddings and content embeddings, and attempt to predict the content embedding for the final timestamp. We also develop a confidence estimator for our neural network, which is a crucial requirement for productionizing this model. We apply NERE to Quizlet's proprietary dataset, and present our results. We achieved an R^2 score of 0.81 in the content embedding space, and a recall score of 54% on our 100 nearest neighbors. This vastly exceeds the recall@100 score of 12% that a standard matrix-factorization approach provides. We conclude with a discussion on how NERE will be deployed, and position our work as one of the first educational recommender systems for the K-12 space.


Crowdsourcing Multiple Choice Science Questions

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a novel method for obtaining high-quality, domain-targeted multiple choice questions from crowd workers. Generating these questions can be difficult without trading away originality, relevance or diversity in the answer options. Our method addresses these problems by leveraging a large corpus of domain-specific text and a small set of existing questions. It produces model suggestions for document selection and answer distractor choice which aid the human question generation process. With this method we have assembled SciQ, a dataset of 13.7K multiple choice science exam questions (Dataset available at http://allenai.org/data.html). We demonstrate that the method produces in-domain questions by providing an analysis of this new dataset and by showing that humans cannot distinguish the crowdsourced questions from original questions. When using SciQ as additional training data to existing questions, we observe accuracy improvements on real science exams.


Online Learning of Optimal Bidding Strategy in Repeated Multi-Commodity Auctions

Neural Information Processing Systems

We study the online learning problem of a bidder who participates in repeated auctions. With the goal of maximizing his T-period payoff, the bidder determines the optimal allocation of his budget among his bids for $K$ goods at each period. As a bidding strategy, we propose a polynomial-time algorithm, inspired by the dynamic programming approach to the knapsack problem. The proposed algorithm, referred to as dynamic programming on discrete set (DPDS), achieves a regret order of $O(\sqrt{T\log{T}})$. By showing that the regret is lower bounded by $\Omega(\sqrt{T})$ for any strategy, we conclude that DPDS is order optimal up to a $\sqrt{\log{T}}$ term. We evaluate the performance of DPDS empirically in the context of virtual trading in wholesale electricity markets by using historical data from the New York market. Empirical results show that DPDS consistently outperforms benchmark heuristic methods that are derived from machine learning and online learning approaches.


Artificial Intelligence with Python – Heuristic Search

@machinelearnbot

This course is a go-to guide for the four topics, logic programming, heuristic search, genetic algorithms and building games with AI. It will help you learn to programme with AI. The course will start with the basic puzzles, parsing trees and expression matching. This will be followed by building solutions for region coloring and maze solving. The course also has fun-filled videos on building bots to play Tic-tac-toe, Connect Four and Hexapawn.