An artificially intelligent computer program can now diagnose skin cancer more accurately than a board-certified dermatologist.1 Better yet, the program can do it faster and more efficiently, requiring a training data set rather than a decade of expensive and labor-intensive medical education. While it might appear that it is only a matter of time before physicians are rendered obsolete by this type of technology, a closer look at the role this technology can play in the delivery of health care is warranted to appreciate its current strengths, limitations, and ethical complexities. Artificial intelligence (AI), which includes the fields of machine learning, natural language processing, and robotics, can be applied to almost any field in medicine,2 and its potential contributions to biomedical research, medical education, and delivery of health care seem limitless. With its robust ability to integrate and learn from large sets of clinical data, AI can serve roles in diagnosis,3 clinical decision making,4 and personalized medicine.5 For example, AI-based diagnostic algorithms applied to mammograms are assisting in the detection of breast cancer, serving as a "second opinion" for radiologists.6
NEONATAL WORKSTATION FOR INSPIRED OXYGEN CONTROL AND CLINICAL MONITORING Yao Sun MD, Isaac Kohane MD, Phi) Children's Hospital, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, MA Introduction The regulation of oxygen delivery to acutely ill infants requiring mechanical ventilation is a vital process in neonatal intensive care medicine. We have designed a microcomputer based system to automatically and continuously control the inspired oxygeff-" concentration mechff ically ventilated (FI02) delivered newborn infants. In addition, we will utilize this computer platform to collect and analyze clinical data (such as heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, and oxygen saturation) in newborn infants with pulmonary disease. Background Oxygen toxicity plays a role in the development of chronic lung disease in newborn infants requiring mechanical ventilation. By constantly monitoring the signals from cardiac and pulse oximetry monitors and correlating these signals, a computer system has been designed to control the inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) delivered to mechanically ventilated newborn infants.
Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. His scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Hawking was an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA), a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, Hawking was ranked number 25 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009 and achieved commercial success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general. His book, A Brief History of Time, appeared on the British Sunday Times best-seller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking had a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease (also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Lou Gehrig's disease), that gradually paralysed him over the decades. Even after the loss of his speech, he was still able to communicate through a speech-generating device, initially through use of a hand-held switch, and eventually by using a single cheek muscle. Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 in Oxford to Frank (1905–1986) and Isobel Hawking (née Walker; 1915–2013). Despite their families' financial constraints, both parents attended the University of Oxford, where Frank read medicine and Isobel read Philosophy, Politics and Economics. The two met shortly after the beginning of the Second World War at a medical research institute where Isobel was working as a secretary and Frank was working as a medical researcher. They lived in Highgate; but, as London was being bombed in those years, Isobel went to Oxford to give birth in greater safety. Hawking had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward. In 1950, when Hawking's father became head of the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans, Hertfordshire.