Since the depletion of fossil fuels, the world has started to rely heavily on renewable sources of energy. With every passing year, our dependency on the renewable sources of energy is increasing exponentially. As a result, complex and hybrid generation systems are being designed and developed to meet the energy demands and ensure energy security in a country. The continual improvement in the technology and an effort towards the provision of uninterrupted power to the end-users is strongly dependent on an effective and fault resilient Operation and Maintenance (O&M) system. Ingenious algorithms and techniques are hence been introduced aiming to minimize equipment and plant downtime. Efforts are being made to develop robust Prognostic Maintenance systems that can identify the faults before they occur. To this aim, complex Data Analytics and Machine Learning (ML) techniques are being used to increase the overall efficiency of these prognostic maintenance systems. This paper provides an overview of the predictive/prognostic maintenance frameworks reported in the literature. We pay a particular focus to the approaches, challenges including data-related issues, such as the availability and quality of the data and data auditing, feature engineering, interpretability, and security issues. Being a key aspect of ML-based solutions, we also discuss some of the commonly used publicly available datasets in the domain. The paper also identifies key future research directions. We believe such detailed analysis will provide a baseline for future research in the domain.
This paper reviews current literature in the field of predictive maintenance from the system point of view. We differentiate the existing capabilities of condition estimation and failure risk forecasting as currently applied to simple components, from the capabilities needed to solve the same tasks for complex assets. System-level analysis faces more complex latent degradation states, it has to comprehensively account for active maintenance programs at each component level and consider coupling between different maintenance actions, while reflecting increased monetary and safety costs for system failures. As a result, methods that are effective for forecasting risk and informing maintenance decisions regarding individual components do not readily scale to provide reliable sub-system or system level insights. A novel holistic modeling approach is needed to incorporate available structural and physical knowledge and naturally handle the complexities of actively fielded and maintained assets.
This paper presents a semisupervised system responses evaluations, easy-to-evaluate surrogate models learning framework for dimension reduction and have been utilized as substitutes for computationally expensive reliability analysis. An autoencoder is first adopted for mapping simulations or experiments. Popular choices for surrogate the high-dimensional space into a low-dimensional latent space, models in the literature include, support vector machines (SVM) which contains a distinguishable failure surface. Then a deep [4-7], Kriging models [8-10], and artificial neural networks [11-feedforward neural network (DFN) is utilized to learn the 14]. Given a set of training data, surrogate models can be mapping relationship and reconstruct the latent space, while the constructed and then MCS can be directly carried out for Gaussian process (GP) modeling technique is used to build the reliability analysis. Research efforts have been devoted to surrogate model of the transformed limit state function. During developing adaptive sampling strategies [15-18], which aim at the training process of the DFN, the discrepancy between the balancing the fidelity of the surrogate model and the costs of actual and reconstructed latent space is minimized through semisupervised function evaluations.
Factor analysis or sometimes referred to as variable analysis has been extensively used in classification problems for identifying specific factors that are significant to particular classes. This type of analysis has been widely used in application such as customer segmentation, medical research, network traffic, image, and video classification. Today, factor analysis is prominently being used in fault diagnosis of machines to identify the significant factors and to study the root cause of a specific machine fault. The advantage of performing factor analysis in machine maintenance is to perform prescriptive analysis (helps answer what actions to take?) and preemptive analysis (helps answer how to eliminate the failure mode?). In this paper, a real case of an industrial rotating machine was considered where vibration and ambient temperature data was collected for monitoring the health of the machine. Gaussian mixture model-based clustering was used to cluster the data into significant groups, and spectrum analysis was used to diagnose each cluster to a specific state of the machine. The significant features that attribute to a particular mode of the machine were identified by using the random forest classification model. The significant features for specific modes of the machine were used to conclude that the clusters generated are distinct and have a unique set of significant features.
Advancements in sensing and computing technologies, the development of human and computer interaction frameworks, big data storage capabilities, and the emergence of cloud storage and could computing have resulted in an abundance of data in the modern industry. This data availability has encouraged researchers and industry practitioners to rely on data-based machine learning, especially deep learning, models for fault diagnostics and prognostics more than ever. These models provide unique advantages, however, their performance is heavily dependent on the training data and how well that data represents the test data. This issue mandates fine-tuning and even training the models from scratch when there is a slight change in operating conditions or equipment. Transfer learning is an approach that can remedy this issue by keeping portions of what is learned from previous training and transferring them to the new application. In this paper, a unified definition for transfer learning and its different types is provided, Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) studies that have used transfer learning are reviewed in detail, and finally, a discussion on transfer learning application considerations and gaps is provided for improving the applicability of transfer learning in PHM.