Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have achieved remarkable progress in recent years, but the continuously growing scale of models make them challenging to deploy widely in practical applications. In particular, for real-time generation tasks, different devices require generators of different sizes due to varying computing power. In this paper, we introduce slimmable GANs (SlimGANs), which can flexibly switch the width of the generator to accommodate various quality-efficiency trade-offs at runtime. Specifically, we leverage multiple discriminators that share partial parameters to train the slimmable generator. To facilitate the consistency between generators of different widths, we present a stepwise inplace distillation technique that encourages narrow generators to learn from wide ones. As for class-conditional generation, we propose a sliceable conditional batch normalization that incorporates the label information into different widths. Our methods are validated, both quantitatively and qualitatively, by extensive experiments and a detailed ablation study.
We propose a new approach to train the Generative Adversarial Nets (GANs) with a mixture of generators to overcome the mode collapsing problem. The main intuition is to employ multiple generators, instead of using a single one as in the original GAN. The idea is simple, yet proven to be extremely effective at covering diverse data modes, easily overcoming the mode collapse and delivering state-of-the-art results. A minimax formulation is able to establish among a classifier, a discriminator, and a set of generators in a similar spirit with GAN. Generators create samples that are intended to come from the same distribution as the training data, whilst the discriminator determines whether samples are true data or generated by generators, and the classifier specifies which generator a sample comes from. The distinguishing feature is that internal samples are created from multiple generators, and then one of them will be randomly selected as final output similar to the mechanism of a probabilistic mixture model. We term our method Mixture GAN (MGAN). We develop theoretical analysis to prove that, at the equilibrium, the Jensen-Shannon divergence (JSD) between the mixture of generators' distributions and the empirical data distribution is minimal, whilst the JSD among generators' distributions is maximal, hence effectively avoiding the mode collapse. By utilizing parameter sharing, our proposed model adds minimal computational cost to the standard GAN, and thus can also efficiently scale to large-scale datasets. We conduct extensive experiments on synthetic 2D data and natural image databases (CIFAR-10, STL-10 and ImageNet) to demonstrate the superior performance of our MGAN in achieving state-of-the-art Inception scores over latest baselines, generating diverse and appealing recognizable objects at different resolutions, and specializing in capturing different types of objects by generators.
The Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have demonstrated impressive performance for data synthesis, and are now used in a wide range of computer vision tasks. In spite of this success, they gained a reputation for being difficult to train, what results in a time-consuming and human-involved development process to use them. We consider an alternative training process, named SGAN, in which several adversarial "local" pairs of networks are trained independently so that a "global" supervising pair of networks can be trained against them. The goal is to train the global pair with the corresponding ensemble opponent for improved performances in terms of mode coverage. This approach aims at increasing the chances that learning will not stop for the global pair, preventing both to be trapped in an unsatisfactory local minimum, or to face oscillations often observed in practice. To guarantee the latter, the global pair never affects the local ones. The rules of SGAN training are thus as follows: the global generator and discriminator are trained using the local discriminators and generators, respectively, whereas the local networks are trained with their fixed local opponent. Experimental results on both toy and real-world problems demonstrate that this approach outperforms standard training in terms of better mitigating mode collapse, stability while converging and that it surprisingly, increases the convergence speed as well.
Generative adversarial networks (GAN) have been effective for learning generative models for real-world data. However, existing GANs (GAN and its variants) tend to suffer from training problems such as instability and mode collapse. In this paper, we propose a novel GAN framework called evolutionary generative adversarial networks (E-GAN) for stable GAN training and improved generative performance. Unlike existing GANs, which employ a pre-defined adversarial objective function alternately training a generator and a discriminator, we utilize different adversarial training objectives as mutation operations and evolve a population of generators to adapt to the environment (i.e., the discriminator). We also utilize an evaluation mechanism to measure the quality and diversity of generated samples, such that only well-performing generator(s) are preserved and used for further training. In this way, E-GAN overcomes the limitations of an individual adversarial training objective and always preserves the best offspring, contributing to progress in and the success of GANs. Experiments on several datasets demonstrate that E-GAN achieves convincing generative performance and reduces the training problems inherent in existing GANs.
We propose in this paper a novel approach to tackle the problem of mode collapse encountered in generative adversarial network (GAN). Our idea is intuitive but proven to be very effective, especially in addressing some key limitations of GAN. In essence, it combines the Kullback-Leibler (KL) and reverse KL divergences into a unified objective function, thus it exploits the complementary statistical properties from these divergences to effectively diversify the estimated density in capturing multi-modes. We term our method dual discriminator generative adversarial nets (D2GAN) which, unlike GAN, has two discriminators; and together with a generator, it also has the analogy of a minimax game, wherein a discriminator rewards high scores for samples from data distribution whilst another discriminator, conversely, favoring data from the generator, and the generator produces data to fool both two discriminators. We develop theoretical analysis to show that, given the maximal discriminators, optimizing the generator of D2GAN reduces to minimizing both KL and reverse KL divergences between data distribution and the distribution induced from the data generated by the generator, hence effectively avoiding the mode collapsing problem. We conduct extensive experiments on synthetic and real-world large-scale datasets (MNIST, CIFAR-10, STL-10, ImageNet), where we have made our best effort to compare our D2GAN with the latest state-of-the-art GAN's variants in comprehensive qualitative and quantitative evaluations. The experimental results demonstrate the competitive and superior performance of our approach in generating good quality and diverse samples over baselines, and the capability of our method to scale up to ImageNet database.