Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy systems are very useful machine learning models for regression problems. However, to our knowledge, there has not existed an efficient and effective training algorithm that enables them to deal with big data. Inspired by the connections between TSK fuzzy systems and neural networks, we extend three powerful neural network optimization techniques, i.e., mini-batch gradient descent, regularization, and AdaBound, to TSK fuzzy systems, and also propose a novel DropRule technique specifically for training TSK fuzzy systems. Our final algorithm, mini-batch gradient descent with regularization, DropRule and AdaBound (MBGD-RDA), can achieve fast convergence in training TSK fuzzy systems, and also superior generalization performance in testing. It can be used for training TSK fuzzy systems on datasets of any size; however, it is particularly useful for big datasets, on which currently no other efficient training algorithms exist.
This paper provides an in-depth review of the optimal design of type-1 and type-2 fuzzy inference systems (FIS) using five well known computational frameworks: genetic-fuzzy systems (GFS), neuro-fuzzy systems (NFS), hierarchical fuzzy systems (HFS), evolving fuzzy systems (EFS), and multi-objective fuzzy systems (MFS), which is in view that some of them are linked to each other. The heuristic design of GFS uses evolutionary algorithms for optimizing both Mamdani-type and Takagi-Sugeno-Kang-type fuzzy systems. Whereas, the NFS combines the FIS with neural network learning systems to improve the approximation ability. An HFS combines two or more low-dimensional fuzzy logic units in a hierarchical design to overcome the curse of dimensionality. An EFS solves the data streaming issues by evolving the system incrementally, and an MFS solves the multi-objective trade-offs like the simultaneous maximization of both interpretability and accuracy. This paper offers a synthesis of these dimensions and explores their potentials, challenges, and opportunities in FIS research. This review also examines the complex relations among these dimensions and the possibilities of combining one or more computational frameworks adding another dimension: deep fuzzy systems.
Interval type-2 (IT2) fuzzy systems have become increasingly popular in the last 20 years. They have demonstrated superior performance in many applications. However, the operation of an IT2 fuzzy system is more complex than that of its type-1 counterpart. There are many questions to be answered in designing an IT2 fuzzy system: Should singleton or non-singleton fuzzifier be used? How many membership functions (MFs) should be used for each input? Should Gaussian or piecewise linear MFs be used? Should Mamdani or Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) inference be used? Should minimum or product $t$-norm be used? Should type-reduction be used or not? How to optimize the IT2 fuzzy system? These questions may look overwhelming and confusing to IT2 beginners. In this paper we recommend some representative starting choices for an IT2 fuzzy system design, which hopefully will make IT2 fuzzy systems more accessible to IT2 fuzzy system designers.
This paper investigates the use of different Artificial Intelligence methods to predict the values of several continuous variables from a Steam Generator. The objective was to determine how the different artificial intelligence methods performed in making predictions on the given dataset. The artificial intelligence methods evaluated were Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems. The types of neural networks investigated were Multi-Layer Perceptions, and Radial Basis Function. Bayesian and committee techniques were applied to these neural networks. Each of the AI methods considered was simulated in Matlab. The results of the simulations showed that all the AI methods were capable of predicting the Steam Generator data reasonably accurately. However, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system out performed the other methods in terms of accuracy and ease of implementation, while still achieving a fast execution time as well as a reasonable training time.
Results are presented on the performance of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system (ANFIS) for wind velocity forecasts in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec region in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. The data bank was provided by the meteorological station located at the University of Isthmus, Tehuantepec campus, and this data bank covers the period from 2008 to 2011. Three data models were constructed to carry out 16, 24 and 48 hours forecasts using the following variables: wind velocity, temperature, barometric pressure, and date. The performance measure for the three models is the mean standard error (MSE). In this work, performance analysis in short-term prediction is presented, because it is essential in order to define an adequate wind speed model for eolian parks, where a right planning provide economic benefits.