Transformer-XL: Attentive Language Models Beyond a Fixed-Length Context

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Transformer networks have a potential of learning longer-term dependency, but are limited by a fixed-length context in the setting of language modeling. As a solution, we propose a novel neural architecture, Transformer-XL, that enables Transformer to learn dependency beyond a fixed length without disrupting temporal coherence. Concretely, it consists of a segment-level recurrence mechanism and a novel positional encoding scheme. Our method not only enables capturing longer-term dependency, but also resolves the problem of context fragmentation. As a result, Transformer-XL learns dependency that is about 80% longer than RNNs and 450% longer than vanilla Transformers, achieves better performance on both short and long sequences, and is up to 1,800 times faster than vanilla Transformer during evaluation. Language modeling is among the important problems that require modeling long-term dependency, with successful applications such as unsupervised pretraining (Dai & Le, 2015; Peters et al., 2018; Radford et al., 2018; Devlin et al., 2018). However, it has been a challenge to equip neural networks with the capability to model long-term dependency in sequential data. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs), in particular Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks (Hochreiter & Schmidhuber, 1997), have been a standard solution to language modeling and obtained strong results on multiple benchmarks. Despite the wide adaption, RNNs are difficult to optimize due to gradient vanishing and explosion (Hochreiter et al., 2001), and the introduction of gating in LSTMs and the gradient clipping technique (Graves, 2013; Pascanu et al., 2012) might not be sufficient to fully address this issue. Empirically, previous work has found that LSTM language models use 200 context words on average (Khandelwal et al., 2018), indicating room for further improvement. On the other hand, the direct connections between long-distance word pairs baked in attention mechanisms might ease optimization and enable the learning of long-term dependency (Bahdanau et al., 2014; V aswani et al., 2017).


Can recurrent neural networks warp time?

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Successful recurrent models such as long short-term memories (LSTMs) and gated recurrent units (GRUs) use ad hoc gating mechanisms. Empirically these models have been found to improve the learning of medium to long term temporal dependencies and to help with vanishing gradient issues. We prove that learnable gates in a recurrent model formally provide quasi- invariance to general time transformations in the input data. We recover part of the LSTM architecture from a simple axiomatic approach. This result leads to a new way of initializing gate biases in LSTMs and GRUs. Ex- perimentally, this new chrono initialization is shown to greatly improve learning of long term dependencies, with minimal implementation effort.


AntisymmetricRNN: A Dynamical System View on Recurrent Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recurrent neural networks have gained widespread use in modeling sequential data. Learning long-term dependencies using these models remains difficult though, due to exploding or vanishing gradients. In this paper, we draw connections between recurrent networks and ordinary differential equations. A special form of recurrent networks called the AntisymmetricRNN is proposed under this theoretical framework, which is able to capture long-term dependencies thanks to the stability property of its underlying differential equation. Existing approaches to improving RNN trainability often incur significant computation overhead. In comparison, AntisymmetricRNN achieves the same goal by design. AntisymmetricRNN exhibits much more predictable dynamics. It outperforms regular LSTM models on tasks requiring long-term memory and matches the performance on tasks where short-term dependencies dominate despite being much simpler. Modeling complex temporal dependencies in sequential data using RNNs, especially the long-term dependencies, remains an open challenge.


Variational Graph Recurrent Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Representation learning over graph structured data has been mostly studied in static graph settings while efforts for modeling dynamic graphs are still scant. In this paper, we develop a novel hierarchical variational model that introduces additional latent random variables to jointly model the hidden states of a graph recurrent neural network (GRNN) to capture both topology and node attribute changes in dynamic graphs. We argue that the use of high-level latent random variables in this variational GRNN (VGRNN) can better capture potential variability observed in dynamic graphs as well as the uncertainty of node latent representation. With semi-implicit variational inference developed for this new VGRNN architecture (SI-VGRNN), we show that flexible non-Gaussian latent representations can further help dynamic graph analytic tasks. Our experiments with multiple real-world dynamic graph datasets demonstrate that SI-VGRNN and VGRNN consistently outperform the existing baseline and state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin in dynamic link prediction.


Dilated Recurrent Neural Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

Learning with recurrent neural networks (RNNs) on long sequences is a notoriously difficult task. There are three major challenges: 1) complex dependencies, 2) vanishing and exploding gradients, and 3) efficient parallelization. In this paper, we introduce a simple yet effective RNN connection structure, the DilatedRNN, which simultaneously tackles all of these challenges. The proposed architecture is characterized by multi-resolution dilated recurrent skip connections and can be combined flexibly with diverse RNN cells. Moreover, the DilatedRNN reduces the number of parameters needed and enhances training efficiency significantly, while matching state-of-the-art performance (even with standard RNN cells) in tasks involving very long-term dependencies. To provide a theory-based quantification of the architecture's advantages, we introduce a memory capacity measure, the mean recurrent length, which is more suitable for RNNs with long skip connections than existing measures. We rigorously prove the advantages of the DilatedRNN over other recurrent neural architectures. The code for our method is publicly available at https://github.com/code-terminator/DilatedRNN.