Objective: A median of 14.4% of patient undergone at least one adverse event during surgery and a third of them are preventable. The occurrence of adverse events forces surgeons to implement corrective strategies and, thus, deviate from the standard surgical process. Therefore, it is clear that the automatic identification of adverse events is a major challenge for patient safety. In this paper, we have proposed a method enabling us to identify such deviations. We have focused on identifying surgeons' deviations from standard surgical processes due to surgical events rather than anatomic specificities. This is particularly challenging, given the high variability in typical surgical procedure workflows. Methods: We have introduced a new approach designed to automatically detect and distinguish surgical process deviations based on multi-dimensional non-linear temporal scaling with a hidden semi-Markov model using manual annotation of surgical processes. The approach was then evaluated using cross-validation. Results: The best results have over 90% accuracy. Recall and precision were superior at 70%. We have provided a detailed analysis of the incorrectly-detected observations. Conclusion: Multi-dimensional non-linear temporal scaling with a hidden semi-Markov model provides promising results for detecting deviations. Our error analysis of the incorrectly-detected observations offers different leads in order to further improve our method. Significance: Our method demonstrated the feasibility of automatically detecting surgical deviations that could be implemented for both skill analysis and developing situation awareness-based computer-assisted surgical systems.
When we learn a new motor skill, we have to contend with both the variability inherentin our sensors and the task. The sensory uncertainty can be reduced by using information about the distribution of previously experienced tasks.Here we impose a distribution on a novel sensorimotor task and manipulate the variability of the sensory feedback. We show that subjects internally represent both the distribution of the task as well as their sensory uncertainty. Moreover, they combine these two sources of information in a way that is qualitatively predicted by optimal Bayesian processing. We further analyze if the subjects can represent multimodal distributions such as mixtures of Gaussians. The results show that the CNS employs probabilistic models during sensorimotor learning even when the priors are multimodal.
In compressed sensing, a small number of linear measurements can be used to reconstruct an unknown signal. Existing approaches leverage assumptions on the structure of these signals, such as sparsity or the availability of a generative model. A domain-specific generative model can provide a stronger prior and thus allow for recovery with far fewer measurements. However, unlike sparsity-based approaches, existing methods based on generative models guarantee exact recovery only over their support, which is typically only a small subset of the space on which the signals are defined. We propose Sparse-Gen, a framework that allows for sparse deviations from the support set, thereby achieving the best of both worlds by using a domain specific prior and allowing reconstruction over the full space of signals. Theoretically, our framework provides a new class of signals that can be acquired using compressed sensing, reducing classic sparse vector recovery to a special case and avoiding the restrictive support due to a generative model prior. Empirically, we observe consistent improvements in reconstruction accuracy over competing approaches, especially in the more practical setting of transfer compressed sensing where a generative model for a data-rich, source domain aids sensing on a data-scarce, target domain.
The objective of this work is to develop methods for detecting outliers in time series data. Such methods can become the key component of various monitoring and alerting systems, where an outlier may be equal to some adverse condition that needs human attention. However, real-world time series are often affected by various sources of variability present in the environment that may influence the quality of detection; they may (1) explain some of the changes in the signal that would otherwise lead to false positive detections, as well as, (2) reduce the sensitivity of the detection algorithm leading to increase in false negatives. To alleviate these problems, we propose a new two-layer outlier detection approach that first tries to model and account for the nonstationarity and periodic variation in the time series, and then tries to use other observable variables in the environment to explain any additional signal variation. Our experiments on several data sets in different domains show that our method provides more accurate modeling of the time series, and that it is able to significantly improve outlier detection performance.
Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) can be used to propagate and quantify input uncertainty through a Deep Neural Network (DNN) assuming mild hypotheses on the input distribution. This methodology yields results comparable to existing methods of uncertainty propagation for DNNs while lowering the computational overhead considerably. Additionally, EKF allows model error to be naturally incorporated into the output uncertainty.