Collaborating Authors

Seizure Prediction Using Bidirectional LSTM Machine Learning

Approximately, 50 million people in the world are affected by epilepsy. For patients, the anti-epileptic drugs are not always useful and these drugs may have undesired side effects on a patient's health. If the seizure is predicted the patients will have enough time to take preventive measures. The purpose of this work is to investigate the application of bidirectional LSTM for seizure prediction. In this paper, we trained EEG data from canines on a double Bidirectional LSTM layer followed by a fully connected layer. The data was provided in the form of a Kaggle competition by American Epilepsy Society. The main task was to classify the interictal and preictal EEG clips. Using this model, we obtained an AUC of 0.84 on the test dataset. Which shows that our classifier's performance is above chance level on unseen data. The comparison with the previous work shows that the use of bidirectional LSTM networks can achieve significantly better results than SVM and GRU networks.

A New Neuromorphic Computing Approach for Epileptic Seizure Prediction Artificial Intelligence

Several high specificity and sensitivity seizure prediction methods with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are reported. However, CNNs are computationally expensive and power hungry. These inconveniences make CNN-based methods hard to be implemented on wearable devices. Motivated by the energy-efficient spiking neural networks (SNNs), a neuromorphic computing approach for seizure prediction is proposed in this work. This approach uses a designed gaussian random discrete encoder to generate spike sequences from the EEG samples and make predictions in a spiking convolutional neural network (Spiking-CNN) which combines the advantages of CNNs and SNNs. The experimental results show that the sensitivity, specificity and AUC can remain 95.1%, 99.2% and 0.912 respectively while the computation complexity is reduced by 98.58% compared to CNN, indicating that the proposed Spiking-CNN is hardware friendly and of high precision.

Cloud-based Deep Learning of Big EEG Data for Epileptic Seizure Prediction Machine Learning

Developing a Brain-Computer Interface~(BCI) for seizure prediction can help epileptic patients have a better quality of life. However, there are many difficulties and challenges in developing such a system as a real-life support for patients. Because of the nonstationary nature of EEG signals, normal and seizure patterns vary across different patients. Thus, finding a group of manually extracted features for the prediction task is not practical. Moreover, when using implanted electrodes for brain recording massive amounts of data are produced. This big data calls for the need for safe storage and high computational resources for real-time processing. To address these challenges, a cloud-based BCI system for the analysis of this big EEG data is presented. First, a dimensionality-reduction technique is developed to increase classification accuracy as well as to decrease the communication bandwidth and computation time. Second, following a deep-learning approach, a stacked autoencoder is trained in two steps for unsupervised feature extraction and classification. Third, a cloud-computing solution is proposed for real-time analysis of big EEG data. The results on a benchmark clinical dataset illustrate the superiority of the proposed patient-specific BCI as an alternative method and its expected usefulness in real-life support of epilepsy patients.

Convolutional Neural Networks for Epileptic Seizure Prediction Machine Learning

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder and an accurate forecast of seizures would help to overcome the patient's uncertainty and helplessness. In this contribution, we present and discuss a novel methodology for the classification of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) for seizure prediction. Contrary to previous approaches, we categorically refrain from an extraction of hand-crafted features and use a convolutional neural network (CNN) topology instead for both the determination of suitable signal characteristics and the binary classification of preictal and interictal segments. Three different models have been evaluated on public datasets with long-term recordings from four dogs and three patients. Overall, our findings demonstrate the general applicability. In this work we discuss the strengths and limitations of our methodology.

Interpreting Deep Learning Models for Epileptic Seizure Detection on EEG signals Artificial Intelligence

While Deep Learning (DL) is often considered the state-of-the art for Artificial Intelligence-based medical decision support, it remains sparsely implemented in clinical practice and poorly trusted by clinicians due to insufficient interpretability of neural network models. We have tackled this issue by developing interpretable DL models in the context of online detection of epileptic seizure, based on EEG signal. This has conditioned the preparation of the input signals, the network architecture, and the post-processing of the output in line with the domain knowledge. Specifically, we focused the discussion on three main aspects: 1) how to aggregate the classification results on signal segments provided by the DL model into a larger time scale, at the seizure-level; 2) what are the relevant frequency patterns learned in the first convolutional layer of different models, and their relation with the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands on which the visual interpretation of EEG is based; and 3) the identification of the signal waveforms with larger contribution towards the ictal class, according to the activation differences highlighted using the DeepLIFT method. Results show that the kernel size in the first layer determines the interpretability of the extracted features and the sensitivity of the trained models, even though the final performance is very similar after post-processing. Also, we found that amplitude is the main feature leading to an ictal prediction, suggesting that a larger patient population would be required to learn more complex frequency patterns. Still, our methodology was successfully able to generalize patient inter-variability for the majority of the studied population with a classification F1-score of 0.873 and detecting 90% of the seizures.