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Enabling Dark Energy Science with Deep Generative Models of Galaxy Images

AAAI Conferences

Understanding the nature of dark energy, the mysterious force driving the accelerated expansion of the Universe, is a major challenge of modern cosmology. The next generation of cosmological surveys, specifically designed to address this issue, rely on accurate measurements of the apparent shapes of distant galaxies. However, shape measurement methods suffer from various unavoidable biases and therefore will rely on a precise calibration to meet the accuracy requirements of the science analysis. This calibration process remains an open challenge as it requires large sets of high quality galaxy images. To this end, we study the application of deep conditional generative models in generating realistic galaxy images. In particular we consider variations on conditional variational autoencoder and introduce a new adversarial objective for training of conditional generative networks. Our results suggest a reliable alternative to the acquisition of expensive high quality observations for generating the calibration data needed by the next generation of cosmological surveys.


Manifold-valued Image Generation with Wasserstein Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Unsupervised image generation has recently received an increasing amount of attention thanks to the great success of generative adversarial networks (GANs), particularly Wasserstein GANs. Inspired by the paradigm of real-valued image generation, this paper makes the first attempt to formulate the problem of generating manifold-valued images, which are frequently encountered in real-world applications. For the study, we specially exploit three typical manifold-valued image generation tasks: hue-saturation-value (HSV) color image generation, chromaticity-brightness (CB) color image generation, and diffusion-tensor (DT) image generation. In order to produce such kinds of images as realistic as possible, we generalize the state-of-the-art technique of Wasserstein GANs to the manifold context with exploiting Riemannian geometry. For the proposed manifold-valued image generation problem, we recommend three benchmark datasets that are CIFAR-10 HSV/CB color images, ImageNet HSV/CB color images, UCL DT image datasets. On the three datasets, we experimentally demonstrate the proposed manifold-aware Wasserestein GAN can generate high quality manifold-valued images.


Generating Adversarial Examples With Conditional Generative Adversarial Net

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recently, deep neural networks have significant progress and successful application in various fields, but they are found vulnerable to attack instances, e.g., adversarial examples. State-of-art attack methods can generate attack images by adding small perturbation to the source image. These attack images can fool the classifier but have little impact to human. Therefore, such attack instances are difficult to generate by searching the feature space. How to design an effective and robust generating method has become a spotlight. Inspired by adversarial examples, we propose two novel generative models to produce adaptive attack instances directly, in which conditional generative adversarial network is adopted and distinctive strategy is designed for training. Compared with the common method, such as Fast Gradient Sign Method, our models can reduce the generating cost and improve robustness and has about one fifth running time for producing attack instance.


Instance Selection for GANs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent advances in Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have led to their widespread adoption for the purposes of generating high quality synthetic imagery. While capable of generating photo-realistic images, these models often produce unrealistic samples which fall outside of the data manifold. Several recently proposed techniques attempt to avoid spurious samples, either by rejecting them after generation, or by truncating the model's latent space. While effective, these methods are inefficient, as a large fraction of training time and model capacity are dedicated towards samples that will ultimately go unused. In this work we propose a novel approach to improve sample quality: altering the training dataset via instance selection before model training has taken place. By refining the empirical data distribution before training, we redirect model capacity towards high-density regions, which ultimately improves sample fidelity, lowers model capacity requirements, and significantly reduces training time.


Deblending galaxy superpositions with branched generative adversarial networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Near-future large galaxy surveys will encounter blended galaxy images at a fraction of up to 50% in the densest regions of the universe. Current deblending techniques may segment the foreground galaxy while leaving missing pixel intensities in the background galaxy flux. The problem is compounded by the diffuse nature of galaxies in their outer regions, making segmentation significantly more difficult than in traditional object segmentation applications. We propose a novel branched generative adversarial network (GAN) to deblend overlapping galaxies, where the two branches produce images of the two deblended galaxies. We show that generative models are a powerful engine for deblending given their innate ability to infill missing pixel values occluded by the superposition. We maintain high peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity scores with respect to ground truth images upon deblending. Our model also predicts near-instantaneously, making it a natural choice for the immense quantities of data soon to be created by large surveys such as LSST, Euclid and WFIRST.