We investigate learning of the online local update rules for neural activations (bodies) and weights (synapses) from scratch. We represent the states of each weight and activation by small vectors, and parameterize their updates using (meta-) neural networks. Different neuron types are represented by different embedding vectors which allows the same two functions to be used for all neurons. Instead of training directly for the objective using evolution or long term back-propagation, as is commonly done in similar systems, we motivate and study a different objective: That of remembering past snippets of experience. We explain how this objective relates to standard back-propagation training and other forms of learning. We train for this objective using short term back-propagation and analyze the performance as a function of both the different network types and the difficulty of the problem. We find that this analysis gives interesting insights onto what constitutes a learning rule. We also discuss how such system could form a natural substrate for addressing topics such as episodic memories, meta-learning and auxiliary objectives.
Learning from a few examples remains a key challenge in machine learning. Despite recent advances in important domains such as vision and language, the standard supervised deep learning paradigm does not offer a satisfactory solution for learning new concepts rapidly from little data. In this work, we employ ideas from metric learning based on deep neural features and from recent advances that augment neural networks with external memories. Our framework learns a network that maps a small labelled support set and an unlabelled example to its label, obviating the need for fine-tuning to adapt to new class types. We then define one-shot learning problems on vision (using Omniglot, ImageNet) and language tasks. Our algorithm improves one-shot accuracy on ImageNet from 87.6% to 93.2% and from 88.0% to 93.8% on Omniglot compared to competing approaches. We also demonstrate the usefulness of the same model on language modeling by introducing a one-shot task on the Penn Treebank.
Due to their great performance and scalability properties neural networks have become ubiquitous building blocks of many applications. With the rise of mobile and IoT, these models now are also being increasingly applied in distributed settings, where the owners of the data are separated by limited communication channels and privacy constraints. To address the challenges of these distributed environments, a wide range of training and evaluation schemes have been developed, which require the communication of neural network parametrizations. These novel approaches, which bring the "intelligence to the data" have many advantages over traditional cloud solutions such as privacy-preservation, increased security and device autonomy, communication efficiency and high training speed. This paper gives an overview over the recent advancements and challenges in this new field of research at the intersection of machine learning and communications.
High-dimensional always-changing environments constitute a hard challenge for current reinforcement learning techniques. Artificial agents, nowadays, are often trained off-line in very static and controlled conditions in simulation such that training observations can be thought as sampled i.i.d. from the entire observations space. However, in real world settings, the environment is often non-stationary and subject to unpredictable, frequent changes. In this paper we propose and openly release CRLMaze, a new benchmark for learning continually through reinforcement in a complex 3D non-stationary task based on ViZDoom and subject to several environmental changes. Then, we introduce an end-to-end model-free continual reinforcement learning strategy showing competitive results with respect to four different baselines and not requiring any access to additional supervised signals, previously encountered environmental conditions or observations.
If you are a newcomer to the Deep Learning area, the first question you may have is "Which paper should I start reading from?" Here is a reading roadmap of Deep Learning papers! You will find many papers that are quite new but really worth reading. I would continue adding papers to this roadmap. Editor: What follows is a portion of the papers from this list.