Background: A universal unanswered question in neuroscience and machine learning is whether computers can decode the patterns of the human brain. Multi-Voxels Pattern Analysis (MVPA) is a critical tool for addressing this question. However, there are two challenges in the previous MVPA methods, which include decreasing sparsity and noise in the extracted features and increasing the performance of prediction. Methods: In overcoming mentioned challenges, this paper proposes Anatomical Pattern Analysis (APA) for decoding visual stimuli in the human brain. This framework develops a novel anatomical feature extraction method and a new imbalance AdaBoost algorithm for binary classification. Further, it utilizes an Error-Correcting Output Codes (ECOC) method for multiclass prediction. APA can automatically detect active regions for each category of the visual stimuli. Moreover, it enables us to combine homogeneous datasets for applying advanced classification. Results and Conclusions: Experimental studies on 4 visual categories (words, consonants, objects and scrambled photos) demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves superior performance to state-of-the-art methods.
The analysis of neuroimaging data poses several strong challenges, in particular, due to its high dimensionality, its strong spatio-temporal correlation and the comparably small sample sizes of the respective datasets. To address these challenges, conventional decoding approaches such as the searchlight reduce the complexity of the decoding problem by considering local clusters of voxels only. Thereby, neglecting the distributed spatial patterns of brain activity underlying many cognitive states. In this work, we introduce the DLight framework, which overcomes these challenges by utilizing a long short-term memory unit (LSTM) based deep neural network architecture to analyze the spatial dependency structure of whole-brain fMRI data. In order to maintain interpretability of the neuroimaging data, we adapt the layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) method. Thereby, we enable the neuroscientist user to study the learned association of the LSTM between the data and the cognitive state of the individual. We demonstrate the versatility of DLight by applying it to a large fMRI dataset of the Human Connectome Project. We show that the decoding performance of our method scales better with large datasets, and moreover outperforms conventional decoding approaches, while still detecting physiologically appropriate brain areas for the cognitive states classified. We also demonstrate that DLight is able to detect these areas on several levels of data granularity (i.e., group, subject, trial, time point).
Multi-subject fMRI data analysis is an interesting and challenging problem in human brain decoding studies. The inherent anatomical and functional variability across subjects make it necessary to do both anatomical and functional alignment before classification analysis. Besides, when it comes to big data, time complexity becomes a problem that cannot be ignored. This paper proposes Gradient Hyperalignment (Gradient-HA) as a gradient-based functional alignment method that is suitable for multi-subject fMRI datasets with large amounts of samples and voxels. The advantage of Gradient-HA is that it can solve independence and high dimension problems by using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Stochastic Gradient Ascent (SGA). Validation using multi-classification tasks on big data demonstrates that Gradient-HA method has less time complexity and better or comparable performance compared with other state-of-the-art functional alignment methods.
This paper introduces a novel classification method for functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets with tens of classes. The method is designed to make predictions using information from as many brain locations as possible, instead of resorting to feature selection, and does this by decomposing the pattern of brain activation into differently informative sub-regions. We provide results over a complex semantic processing dataset that show that the method is competitive with state-of-the-art feature selection and also suggest how the method may be used to perform group or exploratory analyses of complex class structure.
Finding the most effective way to aggregate multi-subject fMRI data is a long-standing and challenging problem. It is of increasing interest in contemporary fMRI studies of human cognition due to the scarcity of data per subject and the variability of brain anatomy and functional response across subjects. Recent work on latent factor models shows promising results in this task but this approach does not preserve spatial locality in the brain. We examine two ways to combine the ideas of a factor model and a searchlight based analysis to aggregate multi-subject fMRI data while preserving spatial locality. We first do this directly by combining a recent factor method known as a shared response model with searchlight analysis. Then we design a multi-view convolutional autoencoder for the same task. Both approaches preserve spatial locality and have competitive or better performance compared with standard searchlight analysis and the shared response model applied across the whole brain. We also report a system design to handle the computational challenge of training the convolutional autoencoder.