Collaborating Authors

Tempered Adversarial Networks Machine Learning

Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have been shown to produce realistic samples from high-dimensional distributions, but training them is considered hard. A possible explanation for training instabilities is the inherent imbalance between the networks: While the discriminator is trained directly on both real and fake samples, the generator only has control over the fake samples it produces since the real data distribution is fixed by the choice of a given dataset. We propose a simple modification that gives the generator control over the real samples which leads to a tempered learning process for both generator and discriminator. The real data distribution passes through a lens before being revealed to the discriminator, balancing the generator and discriminator by gradually revealing more detailed features necessary to produce high-quality results. The proposed module automatically adjusts the learning process to the current strength of the networks, yet is generic and easy to add to any GAN variant. In a number of experiments, we show that this can improve quality, stability and/or convergence speed across a range of different GAN architectures (DCGAN, LSGAN, WGAN-GP).

Evolutionary Generative Adversarial Networks Machine Learning

Generative adversarial networks (GAN) have been effective for learning generative models for real-world data. However, existing GANs (GAN and its variants) tend to suffer from training problems such as instability and mode collapse. In this paper, we propose a novel GAN framework called evolutionary generative adversarial networks (E-GAN) for stable GAN training and improved generative performance. Unlike existing GANs, which employ a pre-defined adversarial objective function alternately training a generator and a discriminator, we utilize different adversarial training objectives as mutation operations and evolve a population of generators to adapt to the environment (i.e., the discriminator). We also utilize an evaluation mechanism to measure the quality and diversity of generated samples, such that only well-performing generator(s) are preserved and used for further training. In this way, E-GAN overcomes the limitations of an individual adversarial training objective and always preserves the best offspring, contributing to progress in and the success of GANs. Experiments on several datasets demonstrate that E-GAN achieves convincing generative performance and reduces the training problems inherent in existing GANs.

Lessons Learned from the Training of GANs on Artificial Datasets Machine Learning

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have made great progress in synthesizing realistic images in recent years. However, they are often trained on image datasets with either too few samples or too many classes belonging to different data distributions. Consequently, GANs are prone to underfitting or overfitting, making the analysis of them difficult and constrained. Therefore, in order to conduct a thorough study on GANs while obviating unnecessary interferences introduced by the datasets, we train them on artificial datasets where there are infinitely many samples and the real data distributions are simple, high-dimensional and have structured manifolds. Moreover, the generators are designed such that optimal sets of parameters exist. Empirically, we find that under various distance measures, the generator fails to learn such parameters with the GAN training procedure. We also find that training mixtures of GANs leads to more performance gain compared to increasing the network depth or width when the model complexity is high enough. Our experimental results demonstrate that a mixture of generators can discover different modes or different classes automatically in an unsupervised setting, which we attribute to the distribution of the generation and discrimination tasks across multiple generators and discriminators. As an example of the generalizability of our conclusions to realistic datasets, we train a mixture of GANs on the CIFAR-10 dataset and our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art in terms of popular metrics, i.e., Inception Score (IS) and Fr\'echet Inception Distance (FID).

Forging new worlds: high-resolution synthetic galaxies with chained generative adversarial networks Machine Learning

Astronomy of the 21st century finds itself with extreme quantities of data, with most of it filtered out during capture to save on memory storage. This growth is ripe for modern technologies such as deep learning, as deep image processing techniques have the potential to allow astronomers to automatically identify, classify, segment and deblend various astronomical objects, and to aid in the calibration of shape measurements for weak lensing in cosmology through large datasets augmented with synthetic images. Since galaxies are a prime contender for such applications, we explore the use of generative adversarial networks (GANs), a class of generative models, to produce physically realistic galaxy images. By measuring the distributions of multiple physical properties, we show that images generated with our approach closely follow the distributions of real galaxies, further establishing state-of-the-art GAN architectures as a valuable tool for modern-day astronomy.

Intervention Generative Adversarial Networks Machine Learning

In this paper we propose a novel approach for stabilizing the training process of Generative Adversarial Networks as well as alleviating the mode collapse problem. The main idea is to introduce a regularization term that we call intervention loss into the objective. We refer to the resulting generative model as Intervention Generative Adversarial Networks (IVGAN). By perturbing the latent representations of real images obtained from an auxiliary encoder network with Gaussian invariant interventions and penalizing the dissimilarity of the distributions of the resulting generated images, the intervention loss provides more informative gradient for the generator, significantly improving GAN's training stability. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our methods via solid theoretical analysis and thorough evaluation on standard real-world datasets as well as the stacked MNIST dataset.