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When Autonomous Systems Meet Accuracy and Transferability through AI: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With widespread applications of artificial intelligence (AI), the capabilities of the perception, understanding, decision-making and control for autonomous systems have improved significantly in the past years. When autonomous systems consider the performance of accuracy and transferability simultaneously, several AI methods, like adversarial learning, reinforcement learning (RL) and meta-learning, show their powerful performance. Here, we review the learning-based approaches in autonomous systems from the perspectives of accuracy and transferability. Accuracy means that a well-trained model shows good results during the testing phase, in which the testing set shares a same task or a data distribution with the training set. Transferability means that when an trained model is transferred to other testing domains, the accuracy is still good. Firstly, we introduce some basic concepts of transfer learning and then present some preliminaries of adversarial learning, RL and meta-learning. Secondly, we focus on reviewing the accuracy and transferability to show the advantages of adversarial learning, like generative adversarial networks (GANs), in typical computer vision tasks in autonomous systems, including image style transfer, image super-resolution, image deblurring/dehazing/rain removal, semantic segmentation, depth estimation and person re-identification. Then, we further review the performance of RL and meta-learning from the aspects of accuracy and transferability in autonomous systems, involving robot navigation and robotic manipulation. Finally, we discuss several challenges and future topics for using adversarial learning, RL and meta-learning in autonomous systems.


Machine Learning at the Network Edge: A Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Devices comprising the Internet of Things, such as sensors and small cameras, usually have small memories and limited computational power. The proliferation of such resource-constrained devices in recent years has led to the generation of large quantities of data. These data-producing devices are appealing targets for machine learning applications but struggle to run machine learning algorithms due to their limited computing capability. They typically offload input data to external computing systems (such as cloud servers) for further processing. The results of the machine learning computations are communicated back to the resource-scarce devices, but this worsens latency, leads to increased communication costs, and adds to privacy concerns. Therefore, efforts have been made to place additional computing devices at the edge of the network, i.e close to the IoT devices where the data is generated. Deploying machine learning systems on such edge devices alleviates the above issues by allowing computations to be performed close to the data sources. This survey describes major research efforts where machine learning has been deployed at the edge of computer networks.


A Survey on Edge Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Edge intelligence refers to a set of connected systems and devices for data collection, caching, processing, and analysis in locations close to where data is captured based on artificial intelligence. The aim of edge intelligence is to enhance the quality and speed of data processing and protect the privacy and security of the data. Although recently emerged, spanning the period from 2011 to now, this field of research has shown explosive growth over the past five years. In this paper, we present a thorough and comprehensive survey on the literature surrounding edge intelligence. We first identify four fundamental components of edge intelligence, namely edge caching, edge training, edge inference, and edge offloading, based on theoretical and practical results pertaining to proposed and deployed systems. We then aim for a systematic classification of the state of the solutions by examining research results and observations for each of the four components and present a taxonomy that includes practical problems, adopted techniques, and application goals. For each category, we elaborate, compare and analyse the literature from the perspectives of adopted techniques, objectives, performance, advantages and drawbacks, etc. This survey article provides a comprehensive introduction to edge intelligence and its application areas. In addition, we summarise the development of the emerging research field and the current state-of-the-art and discuss the important open issues and possible theoretical and technical solutions.


A Survey on Visual Transformer

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Transformer is a type of deep neural network mainly based on self-attention mechanism which is originally applied in natural language processing field. Inspired by the strong representation ability of transformer, researchers propose to extend transformer for computer vision tasks. Transformer-based models show competitive and even better performance on various visual benchmarks compared to other network types such as convolutional networks and recurrent networks. With high performance and without inductive bias defined by human, transformer is receiving more and more attention from the visual community. In this paper we provide a literature review of these visual transformer models by categorizing them in different tasks and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. In particular, the main categories include the basic image classification, high-level vision, low-level vision and video processing. The self-attention in computer vision is also briefly revisited as self-attention is the base component in transformer. Efficient transformer methods are included for pushing transformer into real applications on the devices. Finally, we give a discussion about the challenges and further research directions for visual transformers.


Pedestrian Attribute Recognition: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recognizing pedestrian attributes is an important task in computer vision community due to it plays an important role in video surveillance. Many algorithms has been proposed to handle this task. The goal of this paper is to review existing works using traditional methods or based on deep learning networks. Firstly, we introduce the background of pedestrian attributes recognition (PAR, for short), including the fundamental concepts of pedestrian attributes and corresponding challenges. Secondly, we introduce existing benchmarks, including popular datasets and evaluation criterion. Thirdly, we analyse the concept of multi-task learning and multi-label learning, and also explain the relations between these two learning algorithms and pedestrian attribute recognition. We also review some popular network architectures which have widely applied in the deep learning community. Fourthly, we analyse popular solutions for this task, such as attributes group, part-based, \emph{etc}. Fifthly, we shown some applications which takes pedestrian attributes into consideration and achieve better performance. Finally, we summarized this paper and give several possible research directions for pedestrian attributes recognition. The project page of this paper can be found from the following website: \url{https://sites.google.com/view/ahu-pedestrianattributes/}.