Artificial neural network has achieved unprecedented success in the medical domain. This success depends on the availability of massive and representative datasets. However, data collection is often prevented by privacy concerns and people want to take control over their sensitive information during both training and using processes. To address this problem, we propose a privacy-preserving method for the distributed system, Stochastic Channel-Based Federated Learning (SCBF), which enables the participants to train a high-performance model cooperatively without sharing their inputs. Specifically, we design, implement and evaluate a channel-based update algorithm for the central server in a distributed system, which selects the channels with regard to the most active features in a training loop and uploads them as learned information from local datasets. A pruning process is applied to the algorithm based on the validation set, which serves as a model accelerator. In the experiment, our model presents better performances and higher saturating speed than the Federated Averaging method which reveals all the parameters of local models to the server when updating. We also demonstrate that the saturating rate of performance could be promoted by introducing a pruning process. And further improvement could be achieved by tuning the pruning rate. Our experiment shows that 57% of the time is saved by the pruning process with only a reduction of 0.0047 in AUCROC performance and a reduction of 0.0068 in AUCPR.
Recent work on deep neural network pruning has shown there exist sparse subnetworks that achieve equal or improved accuracy, training time, and loss using fewer network parameters when compared to their dense counterparts. Orthogonal to pruning literature, deep neural networks are known to be susceptible to adversarial examples, which may pose risks in security- or safety-critical applications. Intuition suggests that there is an inherent trade-off between sparsity and robustness such that these characteristics could not co-exist. We perform an extensive empirical evaluation and analysis testing the Lottery Ticket Hypothesis with adversarial training and show this approach enables us to find sparse, robust neural networks. Code for reproducing experiments is available here: https://github.com/justincosentino/robust-sparse-networks.
Advances in designing and training deep neural networks have led to the principle that the large and deeper a network is, the better it can perform. As a result, computational resources have become a key limiting factor in achieving better performance. One strategy to improve network capabilities while decreasing computation required is to replace dense fully-connected and convolutional layers with sparse layers. In this paper we experiment with training on sparse neural network topologies. First, we test pruning-based sparse topologies, which use a network topology obtained by initially training a dense network and then pruning low-weight connections. Second, we test RadiX-Nets, a class of sparse network structures with proven connectivity and sparsity properties. Results show that compared to dense topologies, sparse structures show promise in training potential but also can exhibit highly nonlinear convergence, which merits further study.
Most recently, with the proliferation of IoT devices, computational nodes in manufacturing systems IIoT(Industrial-Internet-of-things) and the lunch of 5G networks, there will be millions of connected devices generating a massive amount of data. In such an environment, the controlling systems need to be intelligent enough to deal with a vast amount of data to detect defects in a real-time process. Driven by such a need, artificial intelligence models such as deep learning have to be deployed into IIoT systems. However, learning and using deep learning models are computationally expensive, so an IoT device with limited computational power could not run such models. To tackle this issue, edge intelligence had emerged as a new paradigm towards running Artificial Intelligence models on edge devices. Although a considerable amount of studies have been proposed in this area, the research is still in the early stages. In this paper, we propose a novel edge-based multi-phase pruning pipelines to ensemble learning on IIoT devices. In the first phase, we generate a diverse ensemble of pruned models, then we apply integer quantisation, next we prune the generated ensemble using a clustering-based technique. Finally, we choose the best representative from each generated cluster to be deployed to a distributed IoT environment. On CIFAR-100 and CIFAR-10, our proposed approach was able to outperform the predictability levels of a baseline model (up to 7%), more importantly, the generated learners have small sizes (up to 90% reduction in the model size) that minimise the required computational capabilities to make an inference on the resource-constraint devices.
Due to their great performance and scalability properties neural networks have become ubiquitous building blocks of many applications. With the rise of mobile and IoT, these models now are also being increasingly applied in distributed settings, where the owners of the data are separated by limited communication channels and privacy constraints. To address the challenges of these distributed environments, a wide range of training and evaluation schemes have been developed, which require the communication of neural network parametrizations. These novel approaches, which bring the "intelligence to the data" have many advantages over traditional cloud solutions such as privacy-preservation, increased security and device autonomy, communication efficiency and high training speed. This paper gives an overview over the recent advancements and challenges in this new field of research at the intersection of machine learning and communications.