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Detecting Spacecraft Anomalies Using LSTMs and Nonparametric Dynamic Thresholding

arXiv.org Machine Learning

As spacecraft send back increasing amounts of telemetry data, improved anomaly detection systems are needed to lessen the monitoring burden placed on operations engineers and reduce operational risk. Current spacecraft monitoring systems only target a subset of anomaly types and often require costly expert knowledge to develop and maintain due to challenges involving scale and complexity. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTMs) networks, a type of Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), in overcoming these issues using expert-labeled telemetry anomaly data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. We also propose a complementary unsupervised and nonparametric anomaly thresholding approach developed during a pilot implementation of an anomaly detection system for SMAP, and offer false positive mitigation strategies along with other key improvements and lessons learned during development.


Time-Series Anomaly Detection Service at Microsoft

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Large companies need to monitor various metrics (for example, Page Views and Revenue) of their applications and services in real time. At Microsoft, we develop a time-series anomaly detection service which helps customers to monitor the time-series continuously and alert for potential incidents on time. In this paper, we introduce the pipeline and algorithm of our anomaly detection service, which is designed to be accurate, efficient and general. The pipeline consists of three major modules, including data ingestion, experimentation platform and online compute. To tackle the problem of time-series anomaly detection, we propose a novel algorithm based on Spectral Residual (SR) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Our work is the first attempt to borrow the SR model from visual saliency detection domain to time-series anomaly detection. Moreover, we innovatively combine SR and CNN together to improve the performance of SR model. Our approach achieves superior experimental results compared with state-of-the-art baselines on both public datasets and Microsoft production data.


Including Sparse Production Knowledge into Variational Autoencoders to Increase Anomaly Detection Reliability

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Digitalization leads to data transparency for production systems that we can benefit from with data-driven analysis methods like neural networks. For example, automated anomaly detection enables saving resources and optimizing the production. We study using rarely occurring information about labeled anomalies into Variational Autoencoder neural network structures to overcome information deficits of supervised and unsupervised approaches. This method outperforms all other models in terms of accuracy, precision, and recall. We evaluate the following methods: Principal Component Analysis, Isolation Forest, Classifying Neural Networks, and Variational Autoencoders on seven time series datasets to find the best performing detection methods. We extend this idea to include more infrequently occurring meta information about production processes. This use of sparse labels, both of anomalies or production data, allows to harness any additional information available for increasing anomaly detection performance.


TAnoGAN: Time Series Anomaly Detection with Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Anomaly detection in time series data is a significant problem faced in many application areas such as manufacturing, medical imaging and cyber-security. Recently, Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have gained attention for generation and anomaly detection in image domain. In this paper, we propose a novel GAN-based unsupervised method called TAnoGan for detecting anomalies in time series when a small number of data points are available. We evaluate TAnoGan with 46 real-world time series datasets that cover a variety of domains. Extensive experimental results show that TAnoGan performs better than traditional and neural network models.


Stack of discriminative autoencoders for multiclass anomaly detection in endoscopy images

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) helps physicians examine the gastrointestinal (GI) tract noninvasively. There are few studies that address pathological assessment of endoscopy images in multiclass classification and most of them are based on binary anomaly detection or aim to detect a specific type of anomaly. Multiclass anomaly detection is challenging, especially when the dataset is poorly sampled or imbalanced. Many available datasets in endoscopy field, such as KID2, suffer from an imbalance issue, which makes it difficult to train a high-performance model. Additionally, increasing the number of classes makes classification more difficult. We proposed a multiclass classification algorithm that is extensible to any number of classes and can handle an imbalance issue. The proposed method uses multiple autoencoders where each one is trained on one class to extract features with the most discrimination from other classes. The loss function of autoencoders is set based on reconstruction, compactness, distance from other classes, and Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence. The extracted features are clustered and then classified using an ensemble of support vector data descriptors. A total of 1,778 normal, 227 inflammation, 303 vascular, and 44 polyp images from the KID2 dataset are used for evaluation. The entire algorithm ran 5 times and achieved F1-score of 96.3 +- 0.2% and 85.0 +- 0.4% on the test set for binary and multiclass anomaly detection, respectively. The impact of each step of the algorithm was investigated by various ablation studies and the results were compared with published works. The suggested approach is a competitive option for detecting multiclass anomalies in the GI field.